Wastewater-Based Epidemiology: Sewage Surveillance to Track COVID-19
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), or sewershed surveillance, is the analysis of wastewater to identify presence of biologicals or chemicals for the purpose of monitoring public health. WBE has previously been used to detect the presence of pharmaceutical or industrial waste, drugs, viruses and potential emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies showed that detecting the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in wastewater can be a low-cost solution for tracking COVID-19 outbreaks.
Want to learn more about methods for detecting viral RNA in sewershed water? We're here to help!
Detecting SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater: An Early Warning System for COVID-19
The earliest report of wastewater surveillance to track COVID-19 was a study by the KWR Water Research Institute in March 2020. They found the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater samples in the Netherlands. The report came within a week after the first case of COVID-19 in the country was confirmed. Since then, there have been numerous examples of using WBE to track COVID-19.
Although WBE cannot identify which individuals have been infected, it has several advantages compared to patient testing.
Advantages of Wastewater Surveillance
SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in human feces a few days to a week before the onset of symptoms. A study showed that sewage surveillance can predict COVID-19 outbreaks even before individual patient testing and hospital admissions.
One wastewater sample can provide data on the average infection rate of thousands of people. This aggregated data can be especially informative to regions with low clinical COVID-19 testing rates.
Instead of individually testing thousands of patients, collecting and testing a small number of wastewater samples is much more cost-efficient for obtaining population-wide data.
Continual monitoring of wastewater can be used to establish trends in current outbreaks, identify new outbreaks, and prevalence of infections.
Viral Detection in Wastewater: The Future of Outbreak Prevention
Currently, our response to infectious disease outbreaks depends on the detection of disease after an outbreak has already occurred. By continually monitoring viruses in sewershed water, we can be proactive in identifying potential outbreaks before they occur.
Protocol for Detecting Coronavirus RNA in Wastewater
- Sample Collection
Viral detection in sewage begins by collecting wastewater samples in sewersheds, where water drains into a single point of the sewage system.
The collected wastewater samples are pasteurized at 60°C to inactivate any live pathogens.
- Virus Concentration
The virus is concentrated using either a Polyethylene Glycol 8000 precipitation, centrifugal filtration or ultracentrifugation method.
- RNA Extraction
- RNA Quantification
The RNA is quantified to ensure that the appropriate amount and quality of input RNA is used for downstream analysis.
- RT-qPCR Amplification
RNA is reverse transcribed to cDNA and amplified via quantitative PCR using primer sets for either nucleocapsid genes (N1/N2) or envelope genes (E).
- Data Analysis
The results are analyzed and compared with ongoing levels of viral load within the areas of collection.
Wastewater Testing Products for COVID-19
Viral RNA Extraction
The following Maxwell® nucleic acid purification kits are recommended for extracting viral RNA from wastewater samples. These kits used with Maxwell® Instruments allow automated viral RNA extraction from wastewater at up to 48 samples per run.
Maxwell® RSC PureFood GMO and Authentication Kit
Safe, automated DNA purification from food and feed samples.
Maxwell® RSC Instrument
Benchtop instrument for automated nucleic acid purification with integrated quantitation. For Research Use Only.
Maxwell® RSC 48 Instrument
Benchtop instrument for automated nucleic acid purification of 1–48 samples. For Research Use Only.
Purification scale-up and automation support
Our Field Support Scientists are available to help you implement or optimize automation of viral RNA extraction methods, regardless of the instrumentation platform used. We’ll help you develop a workflow that meets your specific needs!
Viral RNA Quantification
The QuantiFluor® RNA System contains a fluorescent RNA-binding dye that enables sensitive quantitation of small amounts of viral RNA in solution, and is optimized for use with the compact, dual-channel Quantus™ fluorometer.
Amplification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA
PCR reagents, including qPCR and RT-qPCR products, are routinely used to detect and amplify target viral sequences. The GoTaq® Probe 1-Step RT-qPCR System is a recommended master mix option for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) 2019-Novel Coronavirus Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel.
We are in the process of developing amplification kits specifically for wastewater samples. For more information, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
GoTaq® Probe qPCR and RT-qPCR Systems
Ready-to-use master mixes for probe-based qPCR or RT-qPCR.
A6101, A6102, A6120, A6121, A6110
GoScript™ Reverse Transcriptase
Optimized, dependable reverse transcription. Available as kit, master mix or standalone enzyme.
A5003, A5004, A5000, A5001, A2790, A2791, A2800, A2801
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Presence of SARS-CoV-2 in Sewage
Read the first report of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA detection in wastewater by the KWR Water Research Institute.
Sewage as Leading Indicator of COVID-19 Outbreaks
Read this study showing how monitoring wastewater can predict COVID-19 outbreaks.
Review of SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater
This review paper discusses the current state of knowledge and research needs related to SARS-CoV-2 detection in wastewater.