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Journal of Controlled Release 279, 40–52. A ternary-complex of a suicide gene, a RAGE-binding peptide, and polyethylenimine as a gene delivery system with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic dual effects in glioblastoma. 2018

Choi, E., Oh, J., Lee, D., Lee, J., Tan, X., Kim, M., Kim, G., Piao, C. and Lee, M.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System was used to monitor apoptosis during the assessment of an anti-angioneic therapy gene delivery system in a glioblastoma model (5157)

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Journal of Nutrition and Intermediary Metabolism 13, 10–19. Diallyl disulfide, an organo-sulfur compound in garlic and onion attenuates trichloromethane-induced hepatic oxidative stress, activation of NFkB and apoptosis in rats. 2018

Somade, O.T., Ugbaja, R.N., Alli, A.A., Odubote, O.T., Yusuf, T.S. and Busari, B.T.

Notes: Apoptotic cells were monitored in this investigation of the chemo-preventive effect of diallyl disulfide on trichloromethane-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (5159)

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Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 99(2), 200–207. Cell death localization in situ in laboratory reared honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae treated with pesticides. 2011

Gregorc, A. and Ellis, J.D.

Notes: Cell death was detected using TUNEL techniques in honey bee larvae that had been treated with different pesticides. (5158)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 6412-6424. Heregulin-dependent delay in mitotic progression requires HER4 and BRCA1. 2007

Muraoka-Cook, R.S., Caskey, L.S., Sandahl, M.A., Hunter, D.M., Husted, C., Strunk, K.E., Sartor, C.I., Rearick, W.A., McCall, W., Sgagias, M.K., Cowan, K.H., and Earp, H. S.

Notes: Heregulin is a growth factor that binds to the HER/ErbB family of receptors, which includes four HER members. HER1 and HER2 overexpression in breast cancer cells is associated with higher malignancy and poorer prognosis. However, HER4 expression is associated with longer survival and more positive prognosis. The authors of this study investigated HER4-dependent growth inhibition that is mediated by heregulin. The authors determined the absolute levels of HER4 mRNA in several human breast cancer and mouse cancer cell lines. For this determination, relative cell numbers were determined using a CellTiter® AQueous MTS assay. Apoptosis in heregulin-treated or untreated cells was also determined using the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System. The authors concluded that heregulin decreases growth of HER4-positive breast cancer cells, and that this growth inhibition is dependent on BRCA1. (3596)

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EMBO Rep. 7, 649-54. Fgf21 is essential for haematopoiesis in zebrafish. 2006

Yamauchi, H., Hotta, Y., Konishi, M., Miyake, A., Kawahara, A. and Itoh, N.

Notes: In this study, a zebrafish homolog of the human Fgf21 gene was identified, and the role of Fgf21 signaling was investigated using Fgf21-knockdown zebrafish embryos. The Fgf21-knockdown embryos lacked erythroid and myeloid cells, but not lymphoid cells or blood vessels. Fgf21 was therefore shown to be required for erythropoiesis, but not for vasculogenesis. Lack of Fgf21 did not appear to affect apoptosis or cell proliferation rates in the intermediate cell mass. The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System was used for apoptosis determination. (3582)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6332-7. Nicotine inhibits apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs by up-regulating XIAP and survivin. 2006

Basgupta, P., Kinkade, R., Joshi, B., DeCook, C., Haura, E. and Chellappan, S.

Notes: RT-PCR was performed to map the subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on A549 cells. cDNA was synthesized using the Reverse Transcription System. Northern blotting to assess XIAP and survivin expression was performed, and probes were labeled using the Prime-A-Gene® Labeling System. Apoptosis was assessed in nicotine-stimulated cells using a DeadEnd™ TUNEL Assay. (3382)

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J. Virol. 78, 7784-7794. Comparison of Herpes simplex virus reactivation in ganglia in vivo and in explants demonstrates quantitative and qualitative differences. 2004

Sawtell, N.M. and Thompson, R.L.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System was used to analyze apoptosis on 4% paraformaldehyde-fixed, sectioned mouse ganglia explanted in culture. Two groups of post-explanted ganglia were examined by TUNEL staining at 3, 24, and 48 hours.  In the control group there was positive TUNEL staining in ganglia while hyperthermic stress-treated ganglia showed no positive TUNEL staining. (3253)

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Biomaterials 25, 843–850. Protection of insulin secreting cells from nitric oxide induced cellular damage by crosslinked hemoglobin. 2004

Chaea, S.Y., Leeb, M., Kimb, S.W. and Baeb, Y.H.

Notes: The authors studied the effect of nitric oxide stress on rat Islets of Langerhans cells and rat insulinoma cell line (RINm5F) and to determine if cross-linked hemoglobin (Hb-C)could mediate the stress and subsequent apoptosis.  The rat cells were treated with a nitric oxide donor SNAP and the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System was used to measure the effect of NO with or without Hb-C.  In addition, the cell viability was assessed using the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay.  Twenty-four hours after SNAP treatment, the level of NO2 (a by-product of NO) was measured using Griess Reagent to determine the level of nitric oxide production induced. (3053)

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Br. J. Cancer 87, 319-323. Reduced apoptotic levels in squamous but not basal cell carcinomas correlates with detection of cutaneous human papillomavirus. 2002

Jackson, S., Ghali, C., Harwood, A., and Storey, A.

Notes: In this study, TUNEL staining of tissue was performed using Promega's DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System. (2524)

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Science 296, 155-158. Resolution of Lung Inflammation by CD44 2002

Teder, P., Vandivier,W., Jiang, D., Liang, J., Cohn, L., Pure, E. Henson, P.M., Noble, P.W.

Notes: Apoptotic cells were detected in parafin-embedded sections of mouse lung tissue with the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System. (2589)

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Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 19, 359-374. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p19Ink4d and p27Kip1 are coexpressed in select retinal cells and act cooperatively to control cell cycle exit 2002

Cunningham, J.J., Levine, E.M., Zindy, F., Goloubeva, O., Roussel, M.F., Smeyne, R.J.

Notes: Mouse retinal slices from mice strains deficient for Ink4d, Kip1, or both Ink4d and Kip1, as well as Ink4d/Kip1/p53-triple null mice, were characterized for apoptosis using the DeadEnd Colorimetric TUNEL System. (2442)

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Nat. Neurosci. 4, 702-710. CXCR4-activated astrocyte glutamate release via TNFalpha: amplification by microglia triggers neurotoxicity. 2001

Bezzi, P., Domercq, M., Brambilla, L., Galli, R., Schols, D., De Clercq, E., Vescovi, A., Bagetta, G., Kollias, G., Meldolesi, J., and Volterra, A.

Notes: The apoptotic nature of neuron cell death via a chemokine-activated cell–cell communication system involving microglia was characterized. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons were obtained from embryonic day 17 rat brain. Cells were exposed to gp120IIIB and stained for neuronal death by apoptosis using the DeadEnd Colorimetric TUNEL System. Neuronal death was also detected by immunocytochemistry using the Anti-ACTIVE® Caspase-3 pAb (1:250 dilution). (2352)

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J. Exp. Med. 191, 2053-2063. Abrogation of experimental colitis correlates with increased apoptosis in mice deficient for CD44 variant exon 7 (CD44v7) 2000

Wittig, B.M., Johansson, B., Zoller, M., Schwarzler, C., Gunthert, U.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System (DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System) was used to analyze apoptotic nuclei in mouse colon tissues. Frozen, 6µm sections were fixed in chloroform/acetone for 2 minutes. (0145)

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J. Biol. Chem. 275, 8772-8778. Chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp40 suppress aggregate formation and apoptosis in cultured neuronal cells expressing truncated androgen receptor protein with expanded polyglutamine tract. 2000

Kobayashi, Y., Kume, A., Li, M., Doyu, M., Hata, M., Ohtsuka, K., Sobue, G.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System was used to detect apoptosis in transfected Neuro 2a cells. The cells were transfected with truncated androgen receptors that aggregate in either the nuclei or the cytoplasm. The cells with nuclear aggregates were apoptotic and those with cytoplasmic aggregates were mostly nonapoptotic. The location of the aggregates was determined with GFP fusions. The basic protocol of the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System was modified to use streptavidin-Texas Red® for fluorometric detection rather than colorimetric detection. Good detail is provided for the modifications. Neuro 2a cells expressing the aggregating AR mutations as well as various chaperonins were analyzed for cell viability at 24, 48 and 72 hours with the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution (MTS/PES). The name of the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System has been changed to DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System. (0913)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2668-2673. Defective embryonic neurogenesis in Ku-deficient but not DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit-deficient mice. 2000

Gu, Y., Sekiguchi, J., Gao, Y., Dikkes, P., Frank, K., Ferguson, D., Hasty, P., Chun, J., Alt, F.W.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System was used to look at apoptotic cells in wildtype and transgenic mouse spinal cord sections. The tissue was fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, paraffin embedded and 5µm sections prepared. The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System is now called the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System. (1082)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(12), 4474-4481. Disruption of the murine calpain small subunit gene, capn4: calpain is essential for embryonic development but not for cell growth and division 2000

Arthur, J.S., Elce, J.S., Hegadorn, C., Williams, K. and Greer, P.A.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System (DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System) was used to look at apoptosis in rat embryo sections. Embryos were fixed overnight in 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), dehydrated through graded ethanol, and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial cross or sagittal 7µm sections were dewaxed in xylene, rehydrated through graded ethanol, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, then the TUNEL assay was carried out using the DeadEnd™ System protocol. (2146)

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Mech. Ageing Dev. 115, 139-155. Effects of aging on expression of genes involved in regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in the colonic epithelium 2000

Lee, H.-M., Greeley, G.H.,Jr. , and Englander, E.W.

Notes: Sections of colon from aged and young rats were compared for TUNEL-staining or BrdU staining. Both samples, young and old, had very few TUNEL-positive cells and no significant difference in BrdU staining. The TUNEL staining was performed with the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System (DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System) on 3µm sections. The colorimetric staining allowed the identification of condensed nuclei in the TUNEL-positive cells. (0052)

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Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 278, G839-G846. Resistance to apoptosis is a mechanism of adaptation of rat stomach to aspirin 2000

Alderman, B.M., Cook, G.A., Familari, M., Yeomans, N.D.and Giraud, A.S.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System (DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System) was used to analyze apoptotic nuclei in rat gastric sections in response to aspirin. Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded 40µm sections were analyzed. Cells with nuclei staining dark brown (TUNEL positive) and showing the morphological symptoms of apoptosis were counted to quantitate the number of apoptotic cells. A lot detail is provided about the counting procedure. (1506)

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J. Neurosci. 19, 5159-5172. Cellular defects and altered gene expression in PC12 cells stably expressing mutant Huntingtin 1999

Li, S-H., Cheng, A.L., Li, H., Li, X-J.

Notes: PC12 were cells stably transfected with the Huntingtin exon-1 protein with expanded polyglutamine (150Q), and cell viability was measured using the CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. Apoptosis was also measured using TUNEL staining with the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System. (2541)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 13462-13467.. Postnatal neuronal proliferation in mice lacking Ink4d and Kip1 inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases. 1999

Zindy, F., Cunningham, J.J., Sherr, C.J., Jogal, S., Smeyne, R.J., Roussel, M.F.

Notes: The DeadEnd™ Colorimetric Apoptosis Detection System (DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System) was used to identify apoptotic cells in 5µm mouse brain sections. The animals were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde prior to sectioning. Apoptotic neurons within layer II of the cortex of the double-null mice at stage P18 were undergoing cell death but were absent in P14 double-null mice. (0069)

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