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mBio. 3(5), e00266–12. A multicenter blinded analysis indicates no association between chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis and either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus. 2012

Alter, H.J., Mikovits, J.A., Switzer, W.M., Ruscetti, F.W., Lo, S.C., Klimas, N., Komaroff, A.L., Montoya, J.G., Bateman, L., Levine, S., Peterson, D., Levin, B., Hanson, M.R., Genfi, A., Bhat, M., Zheng, H., Wang, R., Li, B., Hung, G.C., Lee, L.L., Sameroff, S., Heneine, W., Coffin, J., Hornig, M. and Lipkin, W.I.

Notes: In this report, the original investigators who found XMRV and pMLV (polytropic murine leukemia virus) in blood of subjects with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) report that this association is not confirmed in a blinded analysis of samples from rigorously characterized subjects.

The CDC performed nucleic acid testing assays. Plasma was centrifuged and RNA isolated from the pellet. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) for generic pMLV/XMRV pro (protease) and gag detection were performed on RNA extracts, using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and an AgPath one-step RT-PCR kit.

ArrayScript RT and AmpliTaq Gold DNA polymerase were used for cDNA synthesis and amplification in the pro and gag qRT-PCR assays, respectively. A third PCR was done using the primers XPOLOF and XPOLOR, followed by a nested PCR with the primers XPOLIF and XPOLIR for the generic detection of MLV/XMRV 216-bp pol sequences. For this reaction, cDNA synthesis and amplification of RNA was done using Promega AMV Reverse Transcriptase and a RobustI RT-PCR kit. Each PCR experiment included 20 water-only reactions to control for contamination. (4300)

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Viruses 4, 200–10. Clinical characteristics and genetic variability of human rhinovirus in Mexico. 2012

Landa-Cardeña, A., Morales-Romero, J., García-Roman, R., Cobián-Güemes, A.G., Méndez, E., Ortiz-Leon, C., Pitalúa-Cortés, F., Mora, S.I. and Montero, H.

Notes: This study examined the prevalence of strains of human rhinovirus (HRV) that may be causing respiratory infections in Mexican children. Nucleic acids were purified from nasal swabs of two-year-old children, and screened for the presence of HRV by amplifying 20ng of HRV-RNA using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System with primers for the 5´ nontranslated region. Products were sequenced and aligned with sequences found in GenBank. (4343)

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Am.J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 86(4), 732–735. Identification of Oropouche Orthobunyavirus in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Three Patients in the Amazonas, Brazil. 2012

Bastos, S., Figueiredo, L.T., Naveca, F.G., Monte, R.L., Lessa, N., Pinto de Figueiredo, R.M., Gimaque, J.B., Pivoto João, G., Ramasawmy, R. and Mourão, M.P.

Notes: Oropouche fever is a arboviral infection in Brazil, surpassed in frequency only by dengue. Oropouche virus (OROV) causes large outbreaks of acute febrile illness in areas along the Amazon and Central-Plateau regions. RNA was extracted from CSF and underwent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing to identify OROV. Reverse transcription was performed with 5ml of the random primers, using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. (4320)

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Virol. J. 9, 144. Inaccurate identification of rotavirus genotype G9 as genotype G3 strains due to primer mismatch. 2012

Mitui, M.T., Chandrasena, T.N., Chan, P.K., Rajindrajith, S., Nelson, E.A., Leung, T.F., Nishizono, A. and Ahmed, K.

Notes: This study examined how well primers developed in 1990 and 2004 for type A rotavirus (RVA) were able to genotype (G type) currently circulating RVAs in Asia. The VP7 gene from RVA was amplified using 2µl of dsRNA template with the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System in a total volume of 50µl. The G type was determined using hemi-nested multiplex PCR using 1µl of the VP7 cDNA and PCR Master Mix in a final volume of 50µl. The final products were sequenced. (4340)

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Int. J. Infect. Dis. 16(1), e53–9. Molecular detection and characterization of West Nile virus associated with multifocal retinitis in patients from southern India. 2012

Shukla, J., Saxena, D., Rathinam, S., Lalitha, P., Joseph, C.R., Sharma, S., Soni, M., Rao, P.V. and Parida, M.

Notes: This study describes the clinical observations and laboratory investigations performed on 170 of the 2,000 suspected West Niles Virus (WNV) cases. These cases were admitted to Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu with ocular complications. Conventional reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR assays were used to detect WNV infection. In addition, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal gene amplification (RT-LAMP) was performed to determine the feasibility of using this method as an alternative cost-effective tool to the real-time RT-PCR.

After proving negative for DENV- and CHIKV, samples were tested for the presence of WNV-specific RNA by RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assays. RNA was extracted from the patient serum, plasma and infected culture supernatant. The RNA was then eluted in 50µl of nuclease-free water and used as template in the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System, with primer pairs targeting the env gene.

Amplification was performed in a 50µl total reaction volume with the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System, using 50pmol of each forward and reverse primer and 2µl of extracted viral RNA. (4331)

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Veterinary Microbiology 160(3-4), 463–467. Molecular detection of murine noroviruses in laboratory and wild mice. 2012

Farkas, T., Fey, B., Keller, G., Martella, V. and Egyed, L.

Notes: Mice RNA samples were converted to cDNA using an oligo-dT primer with the Reverse Transcription System, ethanol precipitated, vacuum dried and transferred to another lab. There they were reconstituted in 20μl of molecular biology grade water.

Detection of caliciviruses in the wild mice samples was attempted using generic calicivirus primers targeting sequences encoding conserved amino acid motifs in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region of ORF1. Two microliters of cDNA was used in 25μl PCR reactions using the GoTaq® Green Master Mix. Laboratory mouse RNA samples were tested only with MNV-specific primers in the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System using 2μl RNA as template.

PCR products were cloned into pGEM-T® Vector and sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primers on an ABI PRISM® 3730 DNA Analyzer. (4330)

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J. Immunol. 188(4), 1896–1904. Plac8-dependent and inducible NO synthase-dependent mechanisms clear Chlamydia muridarum infections from the genital tract. 2012

Johnson, R.M., Kerr, M.S. and Slaven, J.E.

Notes: The authors previously showed that there are two independent mechanisms by which Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells clear infection in epithelial cells; an iNOS-dependent mechanism and a Plac8-dependent mechanism. To further identify the Plac8 mechanism, they used microarrays to identify a second mechanism dependent on Plac8 for terminating Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells.

Several Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones were purified at the end of their culture cycle and grown for 3 days in their usual culture media plus growth factors, without Ag stimulation. Total RNA was isolated from each clone using a protocol that included an RNase-free DNase I treatment step. Specific mRNA gene reverse transcription and amplification were performed using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. (4324)

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J. Biomed. Sci. 19, 42. Shikonin enhances efficacy of a gene-based cancer vaccine via induction of RANTES. 2012

Chen, H.M., Wang, P.H., Aravindaram, K., Chen, Y.H., Yu, H.H., Yang, W.C., and Yang, N.S.

Notes: In this study, the authors evaluated whether application of the phytochemical shikonin to the skin of mice was able to augment the effect of a DNA-based anti-tumor vaccine by inducing the cytokine RANTES. As part of the study, the AccessQuick™ System was used in RT-PCR analysis to determine expression of RANTES mRNA in treated and control skin samples. (4288)

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Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 408, 160-166. Epigenetic regulation of the transcription factor Foxa2 directs differential elafin expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells. 2011

 Yu, K.S., Jo, J.Y., Kim, S.J., Lee, Y., Bae, J.H., Chung, Y.H., and Koh, S.S.

Notes: These authors showed that expression of the serine protease inhibitor elafin is regulated by epigenetically controlled expression of the transcription factor Foxa2. Treatment of melanoma cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor induced elafin expression, resulting in reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays were used to show that Foxa2 binding was required for activation of elafin expression, and that Foxa2 binding was activated by treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor. These assays used a pGL3-Basic Vector construct in which expression of firefly luciferase was driven by the upstream region bearing the Foxa2 binding site. The pRL-TK Vector, expressing Renilla luciferase, was used as a normalization control. The AccessQuick™ System was used for RT-PCR analysis to show that Foxa2 mRNA was barely detectable in melanoma cells.  (4345)

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Infect. Immun. 79, 2451-9. The Agr-like quorum-sensing system regulates sporulation and production of enterotoxin and beta2 toxin by Clostridium perfringens type A non-food-borne human gastrointestinal disease strain F5603. 2011

Li, J., Chen, J., Vidal, J.E., and  McClane, B.A.

Notes: This study explored whether the Agr-like quorum-sensing system regulates sporulation and production of the Clostridium perfringens toxins CPE and beta2 toxin. An agrB null mutant was inhibited for production of beta2 toxin during vegetative growth and in sporulating culture, had reduced production of alpha-toxin and perfringolysin O during vegetative growth, and did not form spores efficiently. The AccessQuick™ System was used in RT-PCR analysis to confirm the presence or absence of agrB transcripts in the wild type, mutant, and complemented strains used in the study. (4546)

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Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 32, 368-74. Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium carrying shRNA-expressing vectors elicit RNA interference in murine bladder tumors. 2011

Yang, N., Li, S.H., Lü, Y.Z., Chen, L.S., and Ren, D.M.

Notes: This proof-of-principle study investigated whether attenuated Salmonella typhimurium could be used as a vehicle for delivering shRNA-expressing plasmid DNA into cancer cells in mice. The authors delivered S. typhimurium bearing plasmids encoding anti-GFP shRNA orally to mice harboring tumors that expressed GFP. They were able to show that the bacteria accumulated and persisted for 40 days within the tumors, and that GFP expression in infected tumors was reduced. The AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System was used to analyze GFP expression levels in cultured cells and tumors. (4347)

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J. Clin. Microbiol. 49(1), 335-44. Development and characterization of a highly specific and sensitive SYBR green reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus on the basis of sequence signatures.

Medina, R.A., et al.

Notes: These authors used extensive computational analysis of isolates from the 2009 H1N1 outbreak to identify conserved H1N1 sequence signatures that could potentially be used in diagnostic assays to track the spread of specific strains during viral outbreaks. They identified target sequences in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes that were highly conserved among 2009 H1N1 isolates. They then designed primers to amplify those sequences and used them in Taqman® and SYBR® Green-based qPCR assays to create a discriminatory 2009 H1N1 detection assay. They used the AccessQuick™ System in conventional RT-PCR to first establish whether their chosen primers were specific for the 2009 H1N1 isolates. In that assay they amplified representative H1N1 strains spanning from 1930 to the 2009 H1N1, and showed that only the 2009 isolates generated product. (4284)

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J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 67, 59-63. Disruption of the blaOXA-51-like gene by ISAba16 and activation of the blaOXA-58 gene leading to carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Ab244.

Lopes. B.S., Evans, B.A., and Amyes, S.G.B.

Notes: This study investigated the genetic basis of carbapenem resistance in the multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate, Ab244. Transposable elements are known to play an important role in multidrug resistance in A. baumannii. The authors used a multiplex PCR approach to detect the presence of known resistance genes and insertion elements, followed by RT-PCR to study expression of the genes identified. For RT-PCR, cDNA was synthesized from 100 ng of RNA using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. Results of the study indicated that the blaOXA-132 gene was inactivated in A. Baumannii AB244 by insertion of ISAba16, and that carbapenem resistance in that isolate was due to an alternate resistance mechanism caused by overexpression of the blaOXA-58 gene. (4344)

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mBio. 2(6), e00275-11. Epsilon-toxin production by Clostridium perfringens type D strain CN3718 is dependent upon the agr operon but not the VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system. 2011

Chen, J., Rood, J.I., and McClane, B.A.

Notes: These authors investigated whether ETX toxin production in C. perfringens type D is regulated by the Agr-like quorum sensing system, the VirS/VirR system, or both. They demonstrated that an agr mutant lacked ETX expression, and showed that lack of VirR had no effect on ETX production. The AccessQuick™ System was used in RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from mutant, wildtype and reconstituted (complemented) strains to confirm absence of agr transcripts in mutant strains. RT-PCR was also used to confirm the presence of etx transcripts in wild type strains, and their absence in the agr mutant. Previous studies had shown that toxin production is upregulated upon contact with enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. This study showed that the agr operon is required for such upregulation. (4289)

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Virol. J. 8, 387. First report of multiple lineages of dengue viruses type 1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2011

dos Santos, F.B., Nogueira, F.B., Castro, M.G., Nunes, P.C., de Filippis, A.M., Fariam, N.R., Simões, J.B., Sampaio, S.A., Santos, C.R. and Nogueira, R.M.

Notes: The authors examined the strains of Dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) found in the State of Rio de Janeiro since it was introduced in 1986. Viral RNA was extracted from patient serum samples or cell culture and 5µl of RNA reverse transcribed and amplified using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System with primers for the 2,325bp C/prM/M/E region of DENV-1. The products were sequenced and aligned to examine how the virus had evolved over time. (4342)

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Cytokine 55, 79-89. GM-CSF plays a key role in zymosan-stimulated human dendritic cells for activation of Th1 and Th17 cells. 2011

Wei, W.C., Su, Y.H., Chen, S.S., Sheu, J.H., and Yang, N.S.

Notes: This study compared the effects of zymosan and LPS on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). The  authors found that zymosan-activated DCs had a unique cytokine expression profile. In zymosan-activated DCs, high levels of GM-CSF and IL-27, rather than IL-12 p70, were involved in Th1 cell activation. As part of the study, RT-PCR was used to investigate the molecular basis of this failure to induce production of active IL-12 p70. Expression levels of the biologically inactive subunits of IL-12 p70 (p40 and p35) was assessed using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. The results showed that zymosan induced expression of p40, but not p35 mRNA, indicating that lack of induction of p35 was the reason for failure to induce active IL-12 p70. (4348)

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J. Gen. Mol. Virol. 3, 18–26. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus71 (HEV71) strains isolated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah from year 2001 to 2009 2011

Yusof, M.A., Rais, F., Abdullah, M.A., Zamri, L.A., Ali, H.M., Kassim, F.M. and Saat, Z.

Notes: This study characterized the strains of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) that circulated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah during the last ten years. Viral RNA was extracted from vesicle, throat and rectal swabs, and 5µl of purified RNA was amplified in a 50µl reaction using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCT System with primers for VP4 or VP1. The amplified products were then sequenced and compared to known HFMD sequences. (4341)

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Med. Vet. Entomol. 25, 58–63. The potential of house flies to act as a vector of avian influenza subtype H5N1 under experimental conditions. 2011

Wanaratana, S., Panyim, S. and Pakpinyo, S.

Notes: To investigate if house flies could act as a vector for avian influenza virus H1N5, flies exposed to the virus were homogenated and the homogenate used to inoculate 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Allantoic fluids were collected from the eggs, RNA purified from the samples and the presence of H1N5 assessed using M-specific primers and the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and looking for the 276bp amplimer. (4339)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75, 2275–83. Characterization of regulatory pathways in Xylella fastidiosa: genes and phenotypes controlled by gacA. 2009

Shi, X.Y., Dumenyo, C.K., Hernandez-Martinez, R., Azad, H. and Cooksey, D.A.

Notes: To gain a better understanding of how Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases in grapes, the authors mutated conserved regulatory genes, including gacA, that affect expression of virulence-related factors in other species. The relative expression levels of gacA in wildtype and mutated strains were examined using RT-PCR. The authors also identified and quantified a number of genes that were regulated by GacA by microarray analysis. Microarray results were confirmed using RT-PCR. RT-PCR was performed using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. (4052)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 21306–11. Human cancers converge at the HIF-2alpha oncogenic axis. 2009

Franovic, A., Holterman, C.E., Payette, J. and Lee, S.

Notes: These authors used short heteronuclear RNAs (shRNA) in multiple cancer cell lines to silence hypoxia-inducing factor-2α (HIF-2α), a gene that many cancers exploit to increase angiogenesis and activate fundamental receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways to gain growth signal autonomy. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to monitor the level of HIF-2α silencing. RT-PCR was performed using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. The authors also examined the level of tyrosine kinase activation in shRNA-treated cells by Western blot analysis. To examine levels of ERK1/2 phopshorylation, the authors used the Anti-ERK 1/2 pAb to compare levels of activated and unactivated ERK1 and 2. (4050)

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Genetics 178, 1415–29. Comparative genetics of sex determination: masculinizing mutations in Caenorhabditis briggsae. 2008

Kelleher, D.F., de Carvalho, C.E., Doty, A.V., Layton, M., Cheng, A.T., Mathies, L.D., Pilgrim, D. and Haag, E.S.

Notes: The authors characterized masculinizing mutations of the female-promoting tra genes in Caenorhabditis briggsae (Cb-tra). Using RT-PCR, the authors monitored the levels of full-length Cb-tra mRNA and a novel splice variant; actin mRNA was amplified as a control. RT-PCR was carried out using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and RNA from 5–10 worms per 50µl reaction. (3892)

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Cancer Res. 2007, 6146–54. Incorporation of an internal ribosome entry site-dependent mechanism in arsenic-induced GADD45 alpha expression. 2008

Chang, Q,. Bhatia, D., Zhang, Y., Meighan, T., Castranova, V., Shi, X. and Chen, F.

Notes: Trivalent arsenic (As3+) induces expression of growth arrest- and DNA damage-induced gene 45α (GADD45α), which interacts with intracellular signaling molecules involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and immune response. To characterize GADD45α mRNA expression patterns, total RNA was isolated from untreated (growing) and As3+-treated (arrested) BEAS-2B cells, and GADD45α mRNA was amplified using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. GADD45α mRNA levels were undetectable in growing cells but increased in a time-dependent manner in arrested cells. Reverse transcription was carried out at 45°C for 50 minutes, followed by 35 cycles of PCR. (3766)

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J. Biol. Chem. 283, 16868–75. The hairless phenotype of the Hirosaki hairless rat is due to the deletion of an 80-kb genomic DNA containing five basic keratin genes. 2008

Nanashima, N., Akita, M., Yamada, T., Shimizu, T., Nakano, H., Fan, Y. and Tsuchida, S.

Notes: The mutation responsible for the hairless phenotype was linked to a 80kb deletion of chromosome 7q36. Because many basic keratin genes are located at 7q36, the authors examined keratin gene expression in the Hirosaki hairless rat using RT-PCR. Expression of kb21, kb23 and kb26 was not detected, whereas other basic keratin genes were expressed. RT-PCR was performed using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and 0.5µg of total RNA isolated from rat skin for 21–30 cycles. (3887)

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Mol. Biol. Cell 18, 2795–804. A developmentally regulated chaperone complex for the endoplasmic reticulum of male haploid germ cells. 2007

van Lith, M., Karala, A.R., Bown, D., Gatehouse, J.A., Ruddock, L.W., Saunders, P.T. and Benham, A.M.

Notes: PDILT is a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) homolog under developmental control and is induced during puberty. To determine whether PDILT expression coincides with the first wave of spermatogenesis, the authors examined expression of PDILT in 2-, 15-, 30-, 45- and 58-day old rats using RT-PCR. Total RNA was isolated from rat testis, and 50ng was amplified using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and primer pairs specific for PDILT, PDI and calmegin, a testis-specific chaperone that is expressed upon the appearance of spermatocytes. Primer pairs were designed to span introns to avoid amplification of genomic DNA. PCR products were analyzed on a 1% agarose gel. Results showed that PDILT mRNA was first detected during the onset of spermatogenesis. (3765)

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J. Immunol. 178, 986-92. Identification of CXCL11 as a STAT3-dependent gene induced by IFN. 2007

Yang, C.H., Wei, L., Pfeffer, S.R., Du, Z., Murti, A., Valentine, W.J., Zheng, Y. and Pfeffer, L.M.

Notes: The STAT proteins are involved in the transcriptional response to interferon (IFN), which includes induction of CXCL11 and ISG15 genes. The authors used quantitative real-time PCR to examine CXCL11 and ISG15 expression levels in IFN-sensitive and IFN-resistant cells after IFN treatment. Expression levels of the IFN-responsive genes were normalized to that of β-actin. Total RNA was isolated from untreated and IFN-treated cells, and qPCR was performed on a Bio-Rad iCycler® instrument using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and SYBR® Green I. Reverse transcription was performed at 48°C for 45 minutes, followed by 35 cycles of PCR. Prior to qRT-PCR, PCR product size was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis, and PCR specificity was checked by analyzing melting curves. (3767)

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