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J. Biol. Chem. 294(10), 3359-3366. Bile acid analogues are activators of pyrin inflammasome. 2019

Alimov, I., Menon, S., Cochran, N., Maher, R., Wang, Q., Alford, J., Concannon, J.B., Yang, Z., Harrington, E., Lamas, L., Lindeman, A., Hoffman, G., Schuhmann, T., Russ, C., Reece-Hoyes, J., Canham, S.M., and Cai, X.

Notes: These researchers screened for microbiome metabolites that activated inflammasomes, using cell viability and caspase-1 activity assays, and a CRISPR genome-wide screen.  (5205)

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Toxicology in Vitro 55, 124–33. Mechanisms of the immune response cause by cationic and anionic surface functionalized cellulose nanocrystals using cell-based assays. 2019

Despres, H.W., Sabra, A., Anderson, P., Hemraz, U.D., Boluk, Y., Sunasee, R., and Ckless, K.

Notes: Based on emerging interest in using cellulose nanocrystals for biomedical applications, the impact of these on immunological responses was evaluated. Human and murine cell lines THP-1, J774A.1 were used with multiple readouts, including caspase-1 activation, cytokine release and cytotoxicity. (5215)

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J. Biol. Chem. 294 (21), 8480–89. Myxoma virus M013 protein antagonizes NF-κB and inflammasome pathways via distinct structural motifs. 2019

Garg, R.R., Jackson, C.B., Rahman, M.M., Khan, A.R., Lewin, A.S., and McFadden, G.

Notes: In this study, researchers evaluated viral protein activity on inflammasome activation, including measuring the activation of caspase-1 by wild-type and mutant proteins. (5214)

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J. Ethnopharmacol. 227, 29-40. An ethnobotanical survey and inhibitory effects on NLRP3 inflammasomes/Caspase-1 of herbal recipes' extracts traditionally used in Rwanda for asthma treatment. 2018

Tomani, J.C.D., Gainkam, L.O.T., Nshutiyayesu, S., Mukazayire, M.J., Ribeiro, S.O., Stevigny, C., Frederich, M., Muganga, R., and Souopgui, J.

Notes: These authors evaluated the toxicity and the anti-inflammatory effects of various traditional herbal remedies used for asthma, with the goal of selecting promising candidates for further characterization. Remedies were tested for toxicity on THP-1 derived macrophages using the CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. The Caspase-Glo® 1 assay was used to evaluate inflammatory effects.

. (5149)

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Pharm. Res. 128, 231-243. Globular adiponectin protects hepatocytes from tunicamycin-induced cell death via modulation of the inflammasome and heme oxygenase-1 induction. 2018

Khakurel, A., and Park, P.H.

Notes: The protective effect of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death in hepatocytes was investigated. Treatment with gAcrp decreased caspase activation and lowered lactate dehydrogenase release as measured by the Caspase-Glo® 1 and CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity assays. These results show that gAcrp protects the liver from inflammation. (5253)

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J. Biol. Chem. 293(7), 2546-2557. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduces cytokine production both in vitro and in a mouse model of inflammation. 2018

Castelblanco, M., Lugrin, J., Ehirchiou, D., Nasi, S., Ishii, I., So, A., Martinon, F., and Busso, N.

Notes: The effects of hydrogen sulfide on inflammasome activation were investigated. Lactate dehydrogenase levels and caspase activation were monitored using the CytoTox-ONE™ and Caspase-Glo® assays. Hydrogen sulfide was shown to decrease caspase activation and inflammasome activity both in vitro and in vivo. (5147)

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J. Steroid Biochem. , epub ahead of print. Impact of steroid hormones E2 and P on the NLRP3/ASC/Casp1 axis in primary mouse astroglia and BV-2 cells after in vitro hypoxia. 2018

Slowik, A., Lammerding, L., Zendedel, A., Habib, P. and Beyer, C.

Notes: The researchers monitored caspase 1 activity in hypoxia models using Caspase-Glo® 1 Inflammasome Assay. (4994) (4994)

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Int. J. Nanomedicine 13, 2279–2294. Silica nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage is followed by activation of intrinsic apoptosis pathway in glioblastoma cells.  2018

Kusaczuk, M., Krętowski, R., Naumowicz, M., Stypułkowska, A., and Cechowska-Pasko, M.

Notes: These authors investigated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiNPs) as a potential cancer treatment and identified the mechanism mediating cancer cell death. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7, Caspase-Glo® 9, CellTiter-Glo® luminescent cell-viability, ROS-Glo™, and Caspase-Glo® 1 assays were used to monitor cellular response to SiNPs. Together, SiNPs were identified to activate the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and lead to cell death.


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Bioorganic Chemistry 78, 258–268. Structure-based design, synthesis and evaluation of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine derivatives as novel caspase-1 inhibitors. 2018

Patel, S., Modi, P., Ranjan, V. and Chhabria, M.

Notes: These researchers sought compounds that could be potential leads for the development of newer caspase-1 inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents. They used Caspase-Glo® 1 Inflammatory Assay. (4995)

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Bioorganic Chemistry 78, 258–268. Structure-based design, synthesis and evaluation of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine derivatives as novel caspase-1 inhibitors. 2018

Patel, S., Modi, P., Ranjan, V., and Chhabria, M.


Notes: These authors used the Caspase-Glo® 1 Assay in their study of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine derivatives (6a-6w) as potential caspase-1 inhibitors. (5012)

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Chem. Phys. Lipids 207(Pt B), 171-178. 25-Hydroxycholesterol induces both P2X7-dependent pyroptosis and caspase-dependent apoptosis in human skin model: New insights into degenerative pathways. 2017

Olivier, E., Dutot, M., Regazzetti, A., Laprévote, O., and Rat, P.

Notes: The role of oxysterol levels in skin aging and degenerative diseases was examined. Specifically, 25-OH oxysterol showed effects on inflammation and led to an increase in caspase-dependent apoptosis. Caspase levels were measured using the Caspase-Glo® 1 assay. Together, 25-OH seems to lead to toxicity and degenerative disorders. (5152)

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J. Immunol. Methods , Published online 6 March. A bioluminescent caspase-1 activity assay rapidly monitors inflammasome activation in cells.


O'Brien, M., Moehring, D., Muñoz-Planillo, R., Núñez, G., Callaway, J., Ting, J., Scurria, M., Ugo, T., Bernad, L., Cali, J., Lazar, D.



Notes: This article describes the Caspase-Glo 1 assay, a homogeneous, bioluminescent assay for detecting inflammasome activation. The paper demonstrates use of this assay to detect specific caspase-1 activity in cells treated with inflammasome inducers, and in human and mouse cell lines and primary cells. The authors also used the assay to confirm one-signal and two-signal inflammasome activation mechanisms, and showed how the assay can be used with other cell health assays to monitor caspase-1 activity, cell death, and IL-1β release from a single microplate well.


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Toxicon 137, 48-53. Acute Ochratoxin A exposure induces inflammation and apoptosis in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. 2017

Raghubeer, S., Nagiah, S., and Chuturgoon, A.A.

Notes: The role of the carcinogen Ochratoxin A in cellular inflammation was examined. HEK293 cells were treated with Ochratoxin A and cellular inflammatory markers were monitored. ATP levels and caspase activation were analyzed using the CellTiter Glo® and Caspase-Glo® assays. (5155)

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J. Infect. Dis. 215(11), 1742–52. Central role for dermal fibroblasts in skin model protection against Candida albicans. 2017

Kühbacher, A., Henkel, H., Stevens, P., Grumaz, C., Finkelmeier, D., Burger-Kentischer, A., Sohn, K. and Rupp, S.

Notes: Immune defense mechanisms against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans were investigated using immune cell–supplemented 3D skin models. These models identified the epidermal cell types responsible for protection against C. albicans. The Caspase-Glo® 1 assay was used to show that activation of caspase-1 required the presence of T-cells. (5160)

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PLos ONE 12(11), e0188387. Interleukin 27 is increased in carotid atherosclerosis and promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation. 2017

Gregersen, I., Sandanger, Ø., Askevold, E.T., Sagen, E.L., Yang, K., Holm, S., Pedersen, T.M., Skjelland, M., Krohg-Sørensen, K., Hansen, T.V., Dahl, T.B., Otterdal, K., Espevik, T., Aukrust, P., Yndestad, A. and Halvorsen, B.

Notes: The authors determined the impact of IL-27 on caspase-1 activity using Capase-Glo® 1 Inflammasome Assay. (4993) (4993)

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Cell Chemical Biology 24(3), 281–292. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are caspase inhibitors. 2017

Smith, C.E., Soti, S., Jones, T.A., Nakagawa, A., Xue, D., and Yin, H.

Notes: A novel target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was identified using the Caspase-Glo® -1, Caspase-Glo® 3/7, and Caspase-Glo® 9 assays. The authors observed that an inhibition of caspase activity lead to decreased cell death and inflammation. The CellTiter-Fluor™ and CellTiter-Glo®  assays were using to monitor cell viability. (5163)

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Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6171. Therapeutic effects of sphingosine kinase inhibitor N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS) in experimental chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.  2017

Vasconcelos, J.F., Meira, C.S., Silva, D.N., Nonaka, C.K.V., Daltro, P.S., Macambira, S.G., Domizi, P.D., Borges, V.M., Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, R., de Freitas Souza, B.S., and Soares, M.B.P. 

Notes: Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and can lead to Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC). The ability of N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS) to decrease inflammation and function as a therapeutic for CCC was determined. As part of this study, Caspase-Glo® assays were used to detect inflammatory (caspase 1 and 8), or apoptotic (caspase 9 and 3/7) activities. (5166)

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J. Immunol. Methods 447, 1–13. A bioluminescent caspase-1 activity assay rapidly monitors inflammasome activation in cells. 2017

O'Brien, M., Moehring, D., Muñoz-Planillo, R., Núñez, G., Callaway, J., Ting, J., Scurria, M., Ugo, T., Bernad, L., Cali, J. and Lazar, D.

Notes: Researchers used the Caspase-Glo® 1 Inflammasome Assay to take measure Z-WEHD-aminoluciferin capase-1 substrate activity. (4827)

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Mol. Cell. Proteomics 15(10), 3203-3219. Phosphoproteomics to Characterize Host Response During Influenza A Virus Infection of Human Macrophages. 2016

Söderholm, S., Kainov, D.E., Öhman, T., Denisova, O.V., Schepens, B., Kulesskiy, E., Imanishi, S.Y., Corthals, G., Hintsanen, P., Aittokallio, T., Saelens, X., Matikainen, S., and Nyman, T.A.

Notes: The authors utilized phosphoproteomics to identify host factors that are activated upon Influenza A infection. In total, 1116 proteins showed changes in regulation including cyclin-dependent kinases. The authors tested the effects of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors on cell viability and caspase activation using the CellTiter Glo® and Caspase-Glo® assays. (5154)

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PLos ONE 10(12), e0145404. Inflammasome Modulation by Chemotherapeutics in Malignant Mesothelioma. 2015

Westbom, C., Thompson, J.K., Leggett, A., MacPherson, M., Beuschel, S., Pass, H., Vacek, P., and Shukla, A.

Notes: A combination therapy of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and an IL-1R antagonist was tested as a potential treatment in malignant mesothelioma (MM). The authors observed both caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis upon treatment. Caspase activation was measured using the Caspase-Glo® 1 assay, and pyroptosis was measured with the CellTiter® 96 Aqueous One Solution Assay. (5148)

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J. Biol. Chem. 290(28), 17306-20. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) mediates IL-1β induction by primary human monocytes during antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection. 2015

Callaway, J.B., Smith, S.A., McKinnon, K.P., de Silva, A.M., Crowe, J.E. Jr, and Ting, J.P.

Notes: The authors investigated the signaling pathways contributing to elevated cytokine levels in patients with severe dengue virus (DENV) infection. The Caspase-Glo® 1 assay was used to measure caspase-1 levels in DENV infected monocytes. Caspase-1 was found to be required for Interleukin-1ß maturation and production.  (5164)

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