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Power of Discrimination

Population statistics for the loci and their various multiplex combinations are listed here. This data was generated at National Institute of Standards and Technology using autosomal and Y- STR data from 1036 individuals. A measure of discrimination often used in paternity analyses is the paternity index (PI), a means for presenting the genetic odds in favor of paternity given the genotypes for the mother, child and alleged father. An alternative calculation used in paternity analyses is the power of exclusion.

List of Tables

Variation observed across 1036 U.S. population samples with 29 autosomal STR loci and the Y-STR locus DYS391. Loci are rank ordered by their probability of identity values. The current CODIS 13 core loci are shown in bold font and are underlined. DYS391, as a single-copy Y-STR marker, has no heterozygosity and exhibits the poorest ability to resolve samples from one another.

Locus

Alleles

Genotypes

Heterozygosity

Probability of Identity

SE33

52

304

0.9353

0.0066

Penta E

23

138

0.8996

0.0147

D2S1338

13

68

0.8793

0.0220

D1S1656

15

93

0.8890

0.0224

D18S51

22

93

0.8687

0.0258

D12S391

24

113

0.8813

0.0271

FGA

27

96

0.8745

0.0308

D6S1043

27

109

0.8494

0.0321

Penta D

16

74

0.8552

0.0382

D21S11

27

86

0.8330

0.0403

D8S1179

11

46

0.7992

0.0558

D19S433

16

78

0.8118

0.0559

vWA

11

39

0.8060

0.0611

F13A01

16

56

0.7809

0.0678

D7S820

11

32

0.7944

0.0726

D16S539

9

28

0.7761

0.0749

D13S317

8

29

0.7674

0.0765

TH01

8

24

0.7471

0.0766

Penta C

12

49

0.7732

0.0769

D2S441

15

43

0.7828

0.0841

D10S1248

12

39

0.7819

0.0845

D3S1358

11

30

0.7519

0.0915

D22S1045

11

44

0.7606

0.0921

F13B

7

20

0.6911

0.0973

CSF1PO

9

31

0.7558

0.1054

D5S818

9

34

0.7297

0.1104

FESFPS

12

36

0.7230

0.1128

LPL

9

27

0.7027

0.1336

TPOX

9

28

0.6902

0.1358

DYS391

7

7

0.4758

Probability of identity values for combined data set and individual population groups.

Locus

Caucasians (N = 361)

Locus Rank

African-Americans (N = 342)

Locus Rank

Hispanics (N = 236)

Locus Rank

Asians (N = 97)

Locus Rank

SE33

0.0079

(1)

0.0108

(1)

0.0099

(1)

0.0190

(1)

Penta E

0.0243

(4)

0.0200

(2)

0.0184

(2)

0.0194

(2)

D2S1338

0.0276

(5)

0.0229

(3)

0.0297

(5)

0.0428

(4)

D1S1656

0.0211

(2)

0.0338

(8)

0.0284

(4)

0.0481

(6)

D18S51

0.0305

(6)

0.0280

(5)

0.0303

(6)

0.0507

(8)

D12S391

0.0237

(3)

0.0373

(9)

0.0332

(7)

0.0473

(5)

FGA

0.0399

(7)

0.0318

(7)

0.0278

(3)

0.0528

(9)

D6S1043

0.0517

(9)

0.0295

(6)

0.0334

(8)

0.0324

(3)

Penta D

0.0588

(10)

0.0268

(4)

0.0506

(10)

0.0766

(13)

D21S11

0.0512

(8)

0.0435

(11)

0.0468

(9)

0.0566

(10)

D8S1179

0.0617

(11)

0.0660

(16)

0.0621

(12)

0.0492

(7)

D19S433

0.0838

(16)

0.0401

(10)

0.0677

(13)

0.0724

(11)

vWA

0.0660

(13)

0.0623

(13)

0.0730

(14)

0.0885

(15)

F13A01

0.1164

(22)

0.0637

(14)

0.0783

(16)

0.1935

(26)

D7S820

0.0628

(12)

0.0889

(22)

0.0867

(19)

0.1006

(18)

D16S539

0.0983

(19)

0.0733

(18)

0.0762

(15)

0.0928

(17)

D13S317

0.0777

(15)

0.1342

(29)

0.0526

(11)

0.0766

(12)

TH01

0.0931

(18)

0.1050

(26)

0.0848

(18)

0.1361

(23)

Penta C

0.1031

(21)

0.0652

(15)

0.0787

(17)

0.1017

(19)

D2S441

0.0884

(17)

0.1051

(27)

0.1098

(22)

0.1187

(22)

D10S1248

0.0989

(20)

0.0693

(17)

0.1050

(21)

0.0919

(16)

D3S1358

0.0758

(14)

0.1090

(28)

0.0904

(20)

0.1485

(25)

D22S1045

0.1239

(23)

0.0552

(12)

0.1743

(29)

0.1030

(20)

F13B

0.1294

(25)

0.0968

(23)

0.1370

(24)

0.3880

(29)

CSF1PO

0.1285

(24)

0.0827

(19)

0.1255

(23)

0.1040

(21)

D5S818

0.1486

(27)

0.0983

(24)

0.1457

(26)

0.0788

(14)

FESFPS

0.1444

(26)

0.0847

(20)

0.1405

(25)

0.1474

(24)

LPL

0.1516

(28)

0.1028

(25)

0.1549

(27)

0.2854

(28)

TPOX

0.1811

(29)

0.0879

(21)

0.1554

(28)

0.2188

(27)

DYS391

0.4430

(30)

0.5603

(30)

0.4411

(30)

0.6992

(30)

Probability of identity for various sets of STR loci, which illustrates the resolving power of different STR typing kits on the same DNA samples.

STR Kit or Core Set of Loci

Total N=1036

361 Caucasians

342 African
Americans

236 Hispanics

97 Asians

CODIS 13

5.02 × 10–16

2.97 × 10–15

1.14 × 10–15

1.36 × 10–15

1.71 × 10–14

Identifiler®

6.18 × 10–19

6.87 × 10–18

1.04 × 10–18

2.73 × 10–18

5.31 × 10–17

PowerPlex® 16

2.82 × 10–19

4.24 × 10–18

6.09 × 10–19

1.26 × 10–18

2.55 × 10–17

PowerPlex® 18D

3.47 × 10–22

9.82 × 10–21

5.60 × 10–22

2.54 × 10–21

7.92 × 10–20

ESS 12

3.04 × 10–16

9.66 × 10–16

9.25 × 10–16

2.60 × 10–15

3.42 × 10–14

PowerPlex® ESI 16 / ESX 16 / NGM™

2.80 × 10–20

2.20 × 10–19

6.23 × 10–20

4.03 × 10–19

9.83 × 10–18

PowerPlex® ESI 17 / ESX 17 / NGM SElect™

1.85 × 10–22

1.74 × 10–21

6.71 × 10–22

3.97 × 10–21

1.87 × 10–19

CODIS 20

9.35 × 10–24

7.32 × 10–23

6.12 × 10–23

8.43 × 10–23

4.22 × 10–21

GlobalFiler™

7.73 × 10–28

1.30 × 10–26

3.20 × 10–27

2.27 × 10–26

1.81 × 10–24

PowerPlex® Fusion

6.58 × 10–29

2.35 × 10–27

1.59 × 10–28

2.12 × 10–27

1.42 × 10–25

PowerPlex® 21

6.77 × 10–27

2.53 × 10–25

2.08 × 10–26

7.98 × 10–26

5.85 × 10–24

PowerPlex® CS7

4.30 × 10–9

4.86 × 10–8

1.87 × 10–9

1.71 × 10–8

4.79 × 10–7

Profiler Plus™

6.11 × 10–12

1.39 × 10–11

2.03 × 10–11

1.08 × 10–11

5.96 × 10–11

COfiler®

5.45 × 10–7

1.01 × 10–6

5.42 × 10–7

9.89 × 10–7

4.30 × 10–6

SGM Plus®

7.04 × 10–14

4.07 × 10–13

1.23 × 10–13

2.10 × 10–13

3.84 × 10–12

SEfiler Plus™

4.65 × 10–16

3.22 × 10–15

1.32 × 10–15

2.09 × 10–15

7.31 × 10–14

SinoFiler™

5.16 × 10–20

4.98 × 10–19

1.25 × 10–19

2.29 × 10–19

2.73 × 10–18

MiniFiler™

3.09 × 10–11

1.06 × 10–10

6.40 × 10–11

5.12 × 10–11

4.84 × 10–10

All 29 autosomal STRs

2.24 × 10–37

7.36 × 10–35

3.16 × 10–37

2.93 × 10–35

4.02 × 10–32

29 autosomal STRs + DYS391

1.07 × 10–37

3.26 × 10–35

1.77 × 10–37

1.29 × 10–35

2.81 × 10–32

Relative positions of 23 Y-STR loci available in the PowerPlex® Y23 System.

The six new loci are shown in bold font. PAR1 and PAR2 are pseudo-autosomal regions on the tips of the Y chromosome that recombine with the X chromosome. The shaded region around AMEL Y can sometimes be deleted, causing loci such as DYS458 to be missing from an otherwise full Y-STR profile. DYS391 is located a sufficient distance away to avoid deletions affecting AMEL Y.

Y-STR locus variability in 1032 males in NIST data set. There are 17 different alleles seen in the data set for DYS385 in 69 combinations of the “a” and “b” amplicons. Numbers highlighted in red include a deletion null allele. The six new loci present in PowerPlex® Y23 are in bold font.

Locus

Alleles Observed

PI (Total)

PI (Caucasian)

Rank

PI (African American)

Rank

PI (Hispanic)

Rank

PI (Asian)

Rank

DYS385a/b

17 (69)

0.0700

0.1482

(1)

0.0608

(1)

0.0815

(1)

0.0549

(1)

DYS481

16

0.1670

0.2653

(6)

0.1401

(2)

0.2033

(4)

0.1765

(2)

DYS576

9

0.1922

0.2292

(2)

0.1917

(3)

0.2020

(3)

0.2392

(7)

DYS570

12

0.2161

0.2575

(4)

0.2085

(4)

0.2008

(2)

0.1895

(4)

DYS458

15

0.2166

0.2352

(3)

0.2410

(6)

0.2144

(5)

0.1825

(3)

DYS390

8

0.2242

0.2966

(7)

0.3233

(11)

0.3605

(16)

0.2480

(8)

DYS643

10

0.2373

0.3790

(12)

0.2130

(5)

0.3292

(13)

0.2639

(9)

DYS635

11

0.2421

0.3313

(9)

0.2778

(9)

0.2604

(6)

0.2769

(11)

DYS389II

12

0.2541

0.3157

(8)

0.2623

(7)

0.2711

(7)

0.2054

(5)

DYS448

16

0.2650

0.3904

(13)

0.2789

(10)

0.2982

(8)

0.2739

(10)

DYS438

7

0.2861

0.3942

(14)

0.4311

(18)

0.3046

(9)

0.4201

(16)

DYS19

10

0.2996

0.4860

(21)

0.2746

(8)

0.3308

(14)

0.2384

(6)

DYS549

7

0.3095

0.3656

(11)

0.3325

(12)

0.3354

(15)

0.3540

(14)

DYS456

8

0.3098

0.2629

(5)

0.3571

(14)

0.3072

(10)

0.4322

(20)

DYS439

11

0.3460

0.3627

(10)

0.3502

(13)

0.3124

(11)

0.4004

(15)

DYS533

7

0.3654

0.4119

(16)

0.3775

(15)

0.3857

(19)

0.4220

(18)

DYS392

11

0.3752

0.4024

(15)

0.5546

(21)

0.3170

(12)

0.3445

(13)

DYS437

8

0.3800

0.4289

(18)

0.4950

(20)

0.3778

(17)

0.6248

(21)

Y-GATA-H4

6

0.3957

0.4286

(17)

0.3842

(16)

0.3983

(20)

0.4203

(17)

DYS389I

8

0.4203

0.4546

(20)

0.4808

(19)

0.3805

(18)

0.3232

(12)

DYS391

7

0.4758

0.4430

(19)

0.5603

(22)

0.4411

(21)

0.6992

(22)

DYS393

6

0.5018

0.6020

(22)

0.4169

(17)

0.5582

(22)

0.4231

(19)

References

Coble, M.D., Hill, C.R., Butler J.M. (2013) Haplotype data for 23 Y-chromosome markers in four U.S. population groups. Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 7, e66–e68.

Hill, C.R., Duewer, D.L., Kline, M.C., Coble, M.D., Butler, J.M. (2013) U.S. population data for 29 autosomal STR loci. Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 7, e82–e83.

Butler, J.M., Hill, C.R., Coble, M.D. (2012) Variability of new STR loci and kits in U.S. population groups. Profiles in DNA. Available at http://www.promega.com/resources/articles/profiles-in-dna/2012/variability-of-new-str-loci-and-kits-in-us-population-groups/.