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Brain 134, 678–92. Fumaric acid esters exert neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammation via activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway 2011

Linker, R.A., Lee, D-H., Ryan, S., van Dam, A.M., Conrad, R., Bista, P., Zeng, W., Hronowsky, X., Buko, A., Chollate, S., Ellrichmann, G., Brück, Dawson, K., Goelz, S., Wiese, S., Scannevin, R.H., Lukashev, M. and Gold, R.

Notes: The authors of this paper investigated the molecular mechanisms through which fumaric acid esters affect the progression and pathology of multiple sclerosis. The authors looked at the activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway which plays a role in defense against oxidative stress. A stable reporter cell line expressing eight copies of the gluthione-S-transferase 2 antioxidative response elements cloned upstream of the luciferase complementary DNA in a pGL4.26 vector. Reporter cells were stimulated with dimethylfumarate for 24 hours and luciferase activity measured using the Luciferase Assay System. A strong dose-dependent induction of antioxidative response elements was observed. Next, the authors looked at the effects of fumaric acid esters on the inhibitor of Nrf2, Keap 1. C-terminal, V5-tagged Keap1 protein was transfected into 293 cells. Forty-eight hours post transfection, cells were treated with dimethyl fumarate. Samples were lysed, Keap1-V5 was immunoprecipitated and gel purified. The protein was digested with trypsin in the presence of ProteaseMAX™ Surfactant, Trypsin Enhancer. Peptide pools were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The authors were able to show that the Keap1 protein was modified in response to treatment. (4215)

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