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Cell 97(1), 29-39. A Smad transcriptional corepressor. 1999

Wotton, D., Lo, R.S., Lee, S. and Massague, J.

Notes: The pRL-CMV plasmid was used as an internal transfection efficiency control. The authors used a homebrew Renilla assay system. The buffer used was 25mM Tris (pH 7.5), 100mM NaCl, with 0.09µM coelenterazine (Biosynth) from an 0.09µM stock in 20mM HCl in methanol. (2170)

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Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 25(14), 193-209. Activation of the delta-globin gene by the beta-globin gene CACCC motif. 1999

Ristaldi M.S., Casula S., Porcu S., Marongiu M.F., Pirastu M. and Cao, A.

Notes: These authors created mutations in the delta-globin promoter to incorporate various combinations of three elements present in the beta-globin promoter. They then examined compared the function of this chimeric promoter in Cos7, C88 mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) and K562 erythroid cell lines compared to that of the delta-globin wild type promoter.  The chimeric globin promoters drove expression of firefly luciferase. The pRL-CMV Vector was used as a transfection control at a 3:1 ratio (4 µg total).  Relative expression levels were assayed using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System.  The authors also used a competitive transient expression assay using a single vector containing both firefly and Renilla luciferase genes under the control of separate promoters.  Again, the chimeric delta-globin promoter (driving firefly luciferase) was tested with the wild type beta-globin promoter (driving Renilla luciferase). The ratio between the two was expressed relative to expression from a wild type beta-globin promoter driving both firefly and Renilla luciferase in the same construct.  (3059)

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J. Biol. Chem. 274, 3522-3530. Distinct and common pathways in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor gene expression by angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor. 1999

Scheidegger, K.J., Du, J., Delafontaine, P.

Notes: The authors co-transfected firefly luciferase reporter constructs with pRL-TK Vector at a ratio of 200:1 into CHO cells overexpressing the angiotensin II AT-1A receptor. Luciferase activities were assayed with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (0450)

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Oncogene 18, 1-8. Endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases activate the STAT signaling pathway: Mutant Tie-2 causing venous malformations signals a distinct STAT activation response. 1999

Korpelainen, E.I., Kärkkäinen, M., Gunji, Y., Vikkula, M., Alitalo, K.

Notes: The GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System was used to produce the R849W mutation in the Tie-2 cDNA cloned into the pcDNA3.1Z+ Vector. The Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System was used with the 293T cells, but no details of the transfection ratio for the firefly luciferase reporter construct and the pRL-TK Vector are provided. (0883)

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J. Immunol. 162, 4069-4078. Expression of murine IL-12 is regulated by translational control of the p35 subunit. 1999

Babik, J.M., Adams, E., Tone, Y., Fairchild, P.J., Tone, M. and Waldmann, H.

Notes: The Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System was used to study a promoter as well as the 5' UTR of the p35 gene. Reporter studies were performed in the pGL3 Enhancer Vector using a 5:1 ratio of the firefly luciferase vector to the pRL-TK Vector. Studies of the 5' UTR were performed in the pGL3 Control Vector, which was transfected at a 10:1 ratio with the pRL-TK Vector. Studies were performed in A20 B cell lymphoma cell line and the RAW 264 macrophage cells. (1488)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 19, 515-525. Fiber-type-specific transcription of the troponin I slow gene is regulated by multiple elements. 1999

Calvo, S. , Venepally, P. , Cheng, J. , Buonanno, A.

Notes: The authors used the pCAT® Basic and pGL3 Basic Vectors to assay for various slow and fast twitch type troponin I transcriptional regulatory elements. They co-transfected pGL3 Basic-derived Vectors with pRL-SV40 Vector at a ratio of 25:1 using calcium phosphate method. Assayed luciferase activities using Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System in a Berthold luminometer. (1383)

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Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 69, 62-72. Genomic organization and regulatory elements of the rat latexin gene, which is expressed in a cell type-specific manner in both central and peripheral nervous systems. 1999

Miyasaka, N., Hatanaka, Y., Jin, M., Arimatsu, Y.

Notes: Reporter studies were performed in two modified PC12 cell lines, PC12D and PC12-22a, NS-20 neuroblastoma cells and L6 rat skeletal myoblast-like cells. Promoter constructs were made in the pGL3 Basic Vector. These constructs were cotransfected with the pRL-CMV Vector, a Renilla luciferase expression plasmid, to control for transfection efficiency. The two vectors were transfected at a 100:1 ratio, respectively. The luciferase activities were determined with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (0696)

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J. Biol. Chem. 274, 3970-3977. Identification of a functional peroxisome proliferator-responsive element in the murine fatty acid transport protein gene. 1999

Frohnert, B. I. , Hui, T. Y. , Bernlohr, D. A.

Notes: The promoter region (and 5' deletion variants thereof) was inserted upstream of the firefly luciferase gene in pGL3 Basic Vector. These constructs were co-transfected into CV-1 cells with various different PPAR isoform expression plasmids and pRL-SV40 Vector as a transfection control at a ratio of 50: 25: 1, respectively. Luciferase activities were determined using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System . (1125)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 1433-1438. Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes. 1999

Beier, F., Lee, R.J., Taylor, A.C., Pestell, R.G. , LuValle, P.

Notes: In this study, a Cyclin D1 promoter construct (driving firefly luciferase) with expression vector for ATF-2 and pRL-SV40 Vector (transfection control) were cotransfected at a 10:13:1 ratio, respectively. Luciferase activity was measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (1476)

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Science 285, 553-556. Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME 1999

Ceriani, M.F., Darlington, T.K., Staknis, D., Mas, P., Petti, A.A., Weitz, C.J., Kay, S.A.

Notes: Most organisms display an endogenous timekeeping mechanism, or circadian clock, which consists of negative feedback loops of gene regulation that facilitate adaptation to cycles of light and darkness. In Drosophila, as well as other organisms, several of the molecules involved in sustaining this circadian clock have been identified. A gene product required for circadian photoreception has recently been identified in Drosophila, and termed crytochrome (CRY). These researchers investigated whether CRY could interact directly with the core clock proteins PERIOD (per) and TIMELESS (tim). The Drosophila cell line S2 was transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct under control of the tim promoter, in conjunction with different combinations of constructs expressing clk, per, tim, and cry. Data was normalized to a cotransfected reporter plasmid, either the pRL-null Vector, a Renilla luciferase vector, or a beta-galactosidase expression vector, and the resulting activities measured using either the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System or the Beta-Galactosidase Enzyme Assay System. These transfection studies, along with coimmuneprecipitation assays, a yeast two-hybrid assay, and immunolocalization studies, show that CRY can block the function of PER/TIM heterodimeric complexes in a light-dependent fashion. In addition, PER/TIM and CRY influence the subcellular distribution of these protein complexes. Thus, CRY acts as a circadian photoreceptor by directly interacting with the core protein components of the circadian clock. (1354)

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J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2665-2671. OC-2, a novel mammalian member of the ONECUT class of homeodomain transcription factors whose function in liver partially overlaps with that of hepatocyte nuclear factor-6. 1999

Jacquemin, P., Lannoy, V.J., Rousseau, G.G., Lemaigre, F.P.

Notes: The authors constructed their own Renilla luciferase transfection control from pRL-null Vector by inserting pfk-2 promoter (phosphofructokinase). Co-transfected firefly luciferase reporter constructs with OC-2 or HNF-6α expression vector and Renilla luciferase control plasmid (pRL138) into rat hepatoma FTO-2B cells at a ratio of 27:1:1, respectively. Luciferase activities were measured with Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (0967)

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J. Biol. Chem. 274, 1277-1285. Promoter characterization of the rat gene for Ca2+-binding protein regucalcin. Transcriptional regulation by signaling factors. 1999

Murata, T., Yamaguchi, M.

Notes: Reporter studies were performed in rat H4-II-E hepatoma cells. Various 5' deletion series of rat regucalcin gene promoter were prepared in the pGL3 Basic Vector. The pGL3-based constructs were cotransfected with pRL-TK Vector at a 4:1 ratio and both firefly and Renilla luciferase activities determined with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. All transfections were performed with the Tfx™-20 Reagent. (0632)

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Genes Dev. 13(4), 412-23. Ski is a component of the histone deacetylase complex required for transcriptional repression by Mad and thyroid hormone receptor. 1999

Nomura, T., Khan, M.M., Kaul, S.C., Dong, H.D., Wadhwa, R., Colmenares, C., Kohno, I. and Ishii, S.

Notes: Repression activity of the Ski component of HDAC was studied using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. CV-1 cells were transfected with 3µg of luciferase reporter (6 tandem repeats of the GAL4 binding site linked to the TK promoter driving luciferase), 0.33µg of the GAL4-Ski expression plasmid, and 1µg of pRL-TK. Other amounts of reporter and expression plasmid were used in other assays for transcriptional repression. (2166)

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J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36527-36536. The seven amino acids (547-553) of rat glucocorticoid receptor required for steroid and Hsp90 binding contain a functionally independent LXXLL motif that is critical for steroid binding. 1999

Giannoukos, G., Silverstein, A.M., Pratt, W.B., Simons, S.S., Jr.

Notes: Up to three mutations were introduced into a GST-fusion of a glucocorticoid receptor with the GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System. Mutations were performed in an undefined eukaryotic expression vector. The expressed proteins were used for pull-down assays. In other experiments, the ability of mutant and wildtype receptors to activate transcription were assessed with a luciferase-based assay. The wildtype or mutant constructs were co-expressed with a GRE-containing firefly luciferase construct, and the amount of firefly luciferase produced was quantified. To control for transfection efficiency, the pRL-TK Vector was transfected as well at a 5:1 ratio. Both firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were measured with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (1100)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14002-14007. 4E-BP3, a new member of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein family. 1998

Poulin, F., Gingras, A.C., Olsen, H., Chevalier, S., Sonenberg, N.

Notes: The authors created a bicistronic vector with a CMV-driven expression of Renilla luciferase followed by the IRES sequence from the 5'-UTR of poliovirus type II Lansing and trailed by the wildtype firefly luciferase gene. The construct was cotransfected into HeLa cells with CMV-driven expression vectors containing wildtype eIF-4E binding protein or mutants. The wildtype eIF-4E binding protein reduced Renilla luciferase activity by about 75% but resulted in a two-fold increase in firefly luciferase. Luciferase activities were measured with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System and the pGEM®-luc Vector was the source of the Firefly luciferase and the pRL-CMV Vector was the source of Renilla luciferase. (0544)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18743-18750. A tripartite array of transcription factor binding sites mediates cAMP induction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription and its inhibition by insulin. 1998

Yeagley, D., Agati, J.M., Quinn, P.G.

Notes: The H4eII cell line was transfected with 20µg of a pGL3 Basic Vector-derived construct, 2µg of various expression vectors and 2µg of the pRL-SV40 Vector. One of the pGL3 Basic Vector-based constructs had the PEPCK promoter plus a GAL4 binding domain and another had five tandem repeats of the GAL4 domain and a minimal TATA box. Fusion proteins of the Kinase-inducible domain and the GAL4 binding domain as well as the Kinase-inducible domain and a cAMP inducible domain. The system was used to measure activation of luciferase via phosphorylation of the GAL4 fusion protein producing a functional activation domain. All transfections and luciferase activities were normalized to Renilla luciferase activity using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (0111)

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J. Immunol. 161, 277-285. An NFAT-dependent enhancer is necessary for anti-IgM-mediated induction of murine CD5 expression in primary splenic B cells. 1998

Berland, R. and Wortis, H.H.

Notes: Reporter assays were performed in murine splenic B cells. Firefly luciferase reporter constructs were contransfected with an equal amount of the pRL-TK Vector. Luciferase activities were assessed with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (1439)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18751-18759. Assessment of the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase B and protein kinase C in insulin inhibition of cAMP-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription. 1998

Agati, J.M., Yeagley, D. and Quinn, P.G.

Notes: Up to four plasmids were transfected into H4IIe cells including 20µg of luciferase reporter vector, 2µg of pRL-SV Vector and an RSV-driven expression vector expressing the catalytic domain of PKA or ras pathway mutants. Luciferase activity was normalized to Renilla luciferase activity using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (2063)

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Immunity 9, 247-256. CD30 is a CD40-inducible molecule that negatively regulates CD40-mediated immunoglobulin class switching in non-antigen-selected human B cells 1998

Cerutti, A., Schaffer, A., Shah, S., Zan, H., Liou, H.-C., Goodwin, R.G., Casali, P.

Notes: Luciferase studies were performed in the human B cell line, CL-01. Cells were electroporated with a 40µl DNA-TE buffer solution containing 20µg of constructs in either pGL3 Basic or pGL3 Promoter Vectors and 10ng of the pRL-CMV Vector. Thus, a 1:2000 ratio of firefly to Renilla luciferase vector is achieved and activity was measured with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (1353)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 27420-27429. Characterization of the muring fatty acid transport protein gene and its insulin response sequence. 1998

Hui, T.Y., Frohnert, B.I., Smith, A.J., Schaffer, J.E., Bernlohr, D.A.

Notes: Luciferase reporter constructs were cotransfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with the pRL-CMV Vector at a 25:1 ratio and luciferase activities were determined with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. RT-PCR was accomplished with AMV Reverse Transcriptase and Taq DNA Polymerase. RNase Protection Assay were performed with the aid of the RNase ONE™ Ribonuclease. (0988)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 33885-33888. Cloning and characterization of the 5´-flanking region of the human growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene. 1998

Kaji, H., Tai, S., Okimura, Y., Iguchi, G., Takahashi, Y., Abe, H., Chihara, K.

Notes: Inserted promoter region and its deletion variants into pGL3-Basic Vector and co-transfected with pRL-CMV Vector (no ratio given). Measured luciferase activities with Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (0952)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 33848-33855. Cloning and characterization of the human β4-integrin gene promoter and enhancers. 1998

Takaoka, A.S., Yamada, T., Gotoh, M., Kanai, Y., Imai, K., Hirohashi, S.

Notes: The authors performed DNaseI footprinting using the Core Footprinting System and nuclear extract or recombinant human AP-1 (c-jun). Promoter and enhancer elements of the human β4 integrin gene were analyzed using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. pRL-TK Vector was used as a transfection control. The transfection ratio of pGL3-Basic-derived plasmids to pRL-TK Vector was 10:1. (0296)

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J. Immunol. 160, 273. Common and distinct signaling pathways mediate the induction of TNF-alpha and IL-5 in IgE plus antigen-stimulated mast cells. 1998

Csonga, R., Prieschl, E.E., Jaksche, D., Novotny, V., Baumruker, T.

Notes: Luciferase reporter plasmids were cotransfected with pRL-TK Vector at a 5:1 ratio in CPII mouse mast cells. In studies with the reporter vector, ras expression vector and pRL-TK Vector, the ratio of each was 3:5:1 with the amount of pRL-TK Vector constant in all transfections at 2µg per reaction. All transfections were accomplished by electroporation and both luciferase activities were determined with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (1288)

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Immunity 9, 871-880. Direct suppression of Stat1 function during adenoviral infection. 1998

Look, D.C., Roswit, W.T., Frick, A.G., Gris Alevy, Y., Dickhaus, D.M., Walter, M.J., Holtzman, M.J.

Notes: Used Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System with a 400:1 transfection ratio of the firefly luciferase plasmid to pRL-SV40 Vector. Also used the pCI-neo Mammalian Expression Vector to make several E1A expression plasmids. (0743)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 26969-26976. Down-regulation of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene promoter by oxidative stress: Critical contribution of nuclear factor 1. 1998

Morel, Y., Barouki, R.

Notes: Promoter activities were studied in HepG2 cells with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. The Renilla control vector was constructed from the pRL-SV Vector by replacing the SV40 promoter with the α-globin gene proximal promoter (–79-+1). The Firefly luciferase construct was prepared in the pGL3 Basic Vector. The pGL3-based Vector and pRL-based Vector were transfected at a 3:1 ratio. A mutant nuclear factor 1 site was introduced into the 1A1 promoter with the GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System by converting GCCA to CGCA. (0659)

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