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Lab. Invest. 98(4), 489–99. β-Ecdysterone protects SH-SY5Y cells against β-amyloid-induced apoptosis via c-Jun N-terminal kinase- and Akt-associated complementary pathways. 2018

Xu T., Niu C., Zhang X., Dong M.

Notes: The significant loss of estrogen in women after menopause has been linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Here, the protective effect of β-ecdysterone (β-Ecd) on SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis in relation to Alzheimer’s disease is investigated. NF-κB and estrogen receptor activation was monitored in the presence of β-Ecd in Aβ-stress conditions using the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay System. Caspase activation was measured as a proxy for cell stress and apoptosis. Together, SH-SY5Y cell treatment with β-Ecd showed a protective effect, making β-Ecd a promising therapeutic candidate. (5169)

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Apoptosis Nov 29. , doi: 10.1007/s10495-018-1502-7. [Epub ahead of print]. A real-time, bioluminescent annexin V assay for the assessment of apoptosis. 2018

Kupcho, K., Shultz, J., Hurst, R., Hartnett, J., Zhou, W., Machleidt, T., Grailer, J., Worzella, T., Riss, T., Lazar, D., Cali, J.J. and Niles, A.

Notes: In this paper, the authors describe the development of an assay to monitor apoptosis using a novel bioluminescent method to detect annexin V binding to phosphatidylserine (PS) along with fluorescent detection of compromised membrane integrity. Assay development, characterization and benchmarking against established methods is demonstrated. (5180)

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Toxicology in Vitro 52, 255–64. An investigation into E-cigarette cytotoxicity in-vitro using a novel 3D differentiated co-culture model of human airways. 2018

Vasanthi Bathrinarayanan, P., Brown, J.E.P., Marshall, L.J. and Leslie, L.J.

Notes: The cytotoxic and negative health effects of E-cigarettes have been minimally explored. This study utilized the ROS-Glo™ and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assays to monitor both oxidative stress and caspase activation in an in vitro multicellular model of human airways. (5156)

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14, 1–12. Analysis of sensitivity and cell death pathways mediated by anti-cancer drugs using three-dimensional culture system. 2018

Kinoshita, T., Higuchi, H., Niibe, A.-K., Sakai, G., Hamamoto, Y., Takaishi, H. and Kanai, T.

Notes: 3D spheroid cultures were used to compare the anti-cancer cell effects between conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and selected multi-kinase inhibitors. Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay was used to study cell death. (4996) (4996)

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PLos ONE 13, e0201891. Cardiomyocytes cultured on mechanically compliant substrates, but not on conventional culture devices, exhibit prominent mitochondrial dysfunction due to reactive oxygen species and insulin resistance under high glucose.  2018

Morishima, M., Horikawa, K., and Funaki, M.

Notes: The role of mechanical properties of cell culture conditions in diabetes-linked cardiac dysfunction was evaluated. ATP levels were measured using the CellTiter-Glo® Luminescence Cell Viability Assay and a GloMax® instrument. Caspase activation and glucose uptake were determined with the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and Glucose Uptake-Glo™ Assays. Cell growth environments closely matching the stiffness of cardiac muscle led to increased glucose susceptibility. (5167)

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Toxicol. Lett. 291, 138-148. Cytotoxicity of 34 FDA approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors in primary rat and human hepatocytes. 2018

Zhang J., Ren, L., Yang, X., White, M., Greenhaw, J., Harris, T., Wu, Q., Bryant, M., Papoian, T., Mattes, W., and Shi, Q.

Notes: These authors used the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and CellTiter-Glo® Assays in studies to determine the cytotoxicity of  34 small molecule kinase inhibitors in primary rat and human hepatocytes. (5009)

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Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 348, 1-13.. Doxorubicin triggers bioenergetic failure and p53 activation in mouse stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.


Cunha-Oliveira, T., Ferreira, L.L., Coelho, A.R., Deus, C.M., and Oliveira, P.J.


Notes: These authors used cultured induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived mouse cardiomyocytes to investigate the effects of Doxorubicin on cell and mitochondrial metabolism and on stress responses.They used the Caspase-Glo® 3/7  and Caspase-Glo®-9 Assays to detect the respective caspase activities, and the CellTiter-Glo® Assay to determine cell viability. (5008)

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J. Biol. Chem. 293(7), 2546-2557. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduces cytokine production both in vitro and in a mouse model of inflammation. 2018

Castelblanco, M., Lugrin, J., Ehirchiou, D., Nasi, S., Ishii, I., So, A., Martinon, F., and Busso, N.

Notes: The effects of hydrogen sulfide on inflammasome activation were investigated. Lactate dehydrogenase levels and caspase activation were monitored using the CytoTox-ONE™ and Caspase-Glo® assays. Hydrogen sulfide was shown to decrease caspase activation and inflammasome activity both in vitro and in vivo. (5147)

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Oncogene 37(1), 39-51. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 has a differential impact on MCT1 and MCT4 lactate carrier expression in colonic epithelial cells: a condition favoring metabolic symbiosis between colorectal cancer and stromal cells. 2018

Diehl, K., Dinges, L.A., Helm, O., Ammar, N., Plundrich, D., Arlt, A., Röcken, C., Sebens S., and Schäfer, H.

Notes: These authors studied the role of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in adaptation to inflammatory/environmental stress in malignant colonic epithelial cells. They used the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay and pGL3-Basic Vector in reporter assays, and the CellTiter® 96, Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and Glucose Uptake-Glo™ Assays to investigate Nrf2 effects on cell viability and metabolism. They found that Nrf2 has an impact on the metabolism in premalignant colonic epithelial cells exposed to inflammatory M1 macrophages, an effect accompanied by growth and survival alterations.  (5014)

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Int. J. Nanomedicine 13, 2279–2294. Silica nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage is followed by activation of intrinsic apoptosis pathway in glioblastoma cells.  2018

Kusaczuk, M., Krętowski, R., Naumowicz, M., Stypułkowska, A., and Cechowska-Pasko, M.

Notes: These authors investigated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiNPs) as a potential cancer treatment and identified the mechanism mediating cancer cell death. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7, Caspase-Glo® 9, CellTiter-Glo® luminescent cell-viability, ROS-Glo™, and Caspase-Glo® 1 assays were used to monitor cellular response to SiNPs. Together, SiNPs were identified to activate the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and lead to cell death.


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Mol. Cell 37(3), 126–33. A bioassay for optimization of macrophage-conditioned medium as a culture supplement to promote hybridoma cell survival and growth. 2018

Hnasko, R., Lin, A.V., Stanker, L., and McGarvey, J.

Notes: Researchers evaluated the treatment of hybridomas with macrophage-conditioned medium using the CytoTox-Glo™ Assay to monitor cell cytotoxicity and the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay to monitor caspase activation. (5032)

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Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1944. Autophagy promotes the survival of dormant breast cancer cells and metastatic tumour recurrence. 2018

Vera-Ramirez, L., Vodnala, S.K., Nini, R., Hunter, K.W., and Green, J.E.

Notes: Researchers evaluated the impact of inhibiting autophagy on cells in vitro using cell viability, cytotoxicity and caspase activity assays. (5033)

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PLoS Genet. 13. DUX4-induced dsRNA and MYC mRNA stabilization activate apoptotic pathways in human cell models of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. 2018

Shadle, S.C., Zhong, J.W., Campbell, A.E., Conerly, M.L., Jagannathan, S., Wong, C.J., Morello, T.D., van der Maarel, S.M., Tapscott, S.J.

Notes: DUX4 is dysregulated in Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) leading to cellular apoptosis and disease. The genes and pathways involved in DUX4-mediated apoptosis are uncharacterized. Here, an siRNA screen to identify involved components is performed, and cell survival was measured using CellTiter-Glo. A counter screen to identify false positives which inhibited DUX4 induction by doxycycline was done using the ONE-Glo EX Luciferase Assay System. (5135)

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J. Biol. Eng. 12, 5. Enhancing the functional output of transplanted islets in diabetic mice using a drug-eluting scaffold. 2018

Zhu, K., Dong, L., Wang, J., Li, D., Chen, M., Jiang, C., and Wang, J.

Notes: In this study, the viability of islet cell populations was evaluated using the CellTiter® 96 AQueous ONE Solution, and apoptosis levels assessed using the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay. (5046)

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Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1591. Multi-faceted immunomodulatory and tissue-tropic clinical bacterial isolate potentiates prostate cancer immunotherapy. 2018

Anker, J.F., Naseem, A.F., Mok, H., Schaeffer, A.J., Abdulkadir, S.A., and Thumbikat, P.

Notes: These authors investigated whether localized bacterial infection could be used to help stimulate an immune response and render prostate tumors susceptible to immune checkpoint inhibitors. They showed that an E.coli strain (CP-1) isolated from a prostate infection colonized prostate tumors and enhanced immune checkpoint inhibition. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay, CellTiter® AQueous ONE Solution and the CytoTox® 96 Assay were used to assess apoptosis, cell viability and cytotoxicity, respectively.  (5047)

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Apoptosis 23, 329–342. Resveratrol analogue, (E)-N-(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide induces G2/M cell cycle arrest through the activation of p53-p21CIP1/WAF1 in human colorectal HCT116 cells. 2018

Cheah, F.K., Leong, K.H., Thomas, N.F., Chin, H.K., Ariffin, A., and Awang, K.

Notes: These authors investigated the mechanism of action of the synthesized resveratrol analogue, (E)-N-(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide (CS) on colorectal cancer cells. They report that CS exerts a potent suppressive effect on HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, but not on normal colon cells. CS caused apoptosis via activation of an extrinsic pathway leading to caspase activation and cell cycle arrest from activated p53. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7, 8 and 9 Assays were used to detect caspase activation. (5045)

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Cancer Lett. 425, 101-115. Sorafenib improves alkylating therapy by blocking induced inflammation, invasion and angiogenesis in breast cancer cells. 2018

Zanotto-Filho, A., Rajamanickam, S., Loranc, E., Masamsetti, V.P., Gorthi, A., Romero, J.C., Tonapi, S., Gonçalves, R.M., Reddick, R.L., Benavides, R., Kuhn, J., Chen, Y., and Bishop, A.J.

Notes: Sorafenib is a small-molecule inhibitor that inhibits multiple kinases in vitro, These authors investigated the antitumoral effect of combining sorafenib with the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide in a breast cancer model (orthotopic 4T1-12B cells). They used the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and CellTiter-Glo® Assays to assess apoptosis and cell viability, respectively. (5048)

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Toxicon 137, 48-53. Acute Ochratoxin A exposure induces inflammation and apoptosis in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. 2017

Raghubeer, S., Nagiah, S., and Chuturgoon, A.A.

Notes: The role of the carcinogen Ochratoxin A in cellular inflammation was examined. HEK293 cells were treated with Ochratoxin A and cellular inflammatory markers were monitored. ATP levels and caspase activation were analyzed using the CellTiter Glo® and Caspase-Glo® assays. (5155)

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Cell Chemical Biology 24(3), 281–292. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are caspase inhibitors. 2017

Smith, C.E., Soti, S., Jones, T.A., Nakagawa, A., Xue, D., and Yin, H.

Notes: A novel target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was identified using the Caspase-Glo® -1, Caspase-Glo® 3/7, and Caspase-Glo® 9 assays. The authors observed that an inhibition of caspase activity lead to decreased cell death and inflammation. The CellTiter-Fluor™ and CellTiter-Glo®  assays were using to monitor cell viability. (5163)

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Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6171. Therapeutic effects of sphingosine kinase inhibitor N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS) in experimental chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.  2017

Vasconcelos, J.F., Meira, C.S., Silva, D.N., Nonaka, C.K.V., Daltro, P.S., Macambira, S.G., Domizi, P.D., Borges, V.M., Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, R., de Freitas Souza, B.S., and Soares, M.B.P. 

Notes: Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and can lead to Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC). The ability of N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS) to decrease inflammation and function as a therapeutic for CCC was determined. As part of this study, Caspase-Glo® assays were used to detect inflammatory (caspase 1 and 8), or apoptotic (caspase 9 and 3/7) activities. (5166)

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Nature 543(7644), 205-210. Autophagy maintains the metabolism and function of young and old stem cells. 2017

Ho, T.T., Warr, M.R., Adelman, E.R., Lansinger, O.M., Flach, J., Verovskaya, E.V., Figueroa, M.E., and Passegué, E.

Notes: These authors investigated how autophagy controls haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, and how changes in autophagy levels affect HSC ageing. They showed that loss of autophagy in HSCs causes accumulation of mitochondria and an activated metabolic state. They used the Caspase-Glo® and CellTiter-Glo Assays to detect apoptosis and ATP, respectively, and used the Glucose Uptake-Glo™ Assay to study metabolic changes. (5018)

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Cancer Res. 77, 4102–15. The alkylating chemotherapeutic temozolomide induces metabolic stress in IDH1-mutant cancers and potentiates NAD+ depletion-mediated cytotoxicity. 2017

Tateishi, K., Higuchi, F., Miller, J.J., Koerner, M.V.A., Lelic, N., Shankar, G.M., Tanaka, S., Fisher, D.E., Batchelor, T.T., Iafrate, A.J., Wakimoto, H., Chi, A.S. and Cahill, D.P.

Notes: Cell viability of IDH1 wild-type or mutant cell lines under treatment conditions was assessed using the CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. From these numbers, the IC50 values were calculated. To evaluate apoptosis, 7,000–8,000 cells were treated with DMSO or compounds singly or in combination (12.5nmol/L NAMPT inhibitors and/or 200μmol/L temozolomide or 50μmol/L Z-VAD-FMK) for 6 or 24 hours and then measured using Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay. Changes in NAD+, NADH, NADP+, and NADPH were assessed using the NAD/NADH-Glo™ and NADP/NADPH-Glo™ Assays. (4946)

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Biochem. J. 474(10), 1591-1602. The human cancer cell active toxin Cry41Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis acts like its insecticidal counterparts. 2017

Krishnan, V., Domanska, B., Elhigazi, A., Afolabi, F., West, M.J., and Crickmore, N.

Notes: This study investigated the effect of the Bacillus thuringiensi toxins parasporin 3 on HepG2 cells. Understanding how Bt toxins target human cell lines has implications for the risk assessment of products containing these toxins, such as transgenic, insect-resistant plants. The authors used the CellTiter®-Blue, CellTiter®-Glo, Caspase-Glo® and ROS-Glo™ assays to assess viability, apoptosis induction, and oxidative stress in cultured cells exposed to the toxin. (5038)

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Cell Signal 28, 284–93. Elongation factor 2 kinase promotes cell survival by inhibiting protein synthesis without inducing autophagy. 2016

Moore, C.E.J., Wang, X., Xie, J., Pickford, J., Barron, J., Regufe da Mota, S., Versele, M. and Proud, C.G.

Notes: Inhibition of HCT116 cell eEF2 kinase with the JAN-849 inhibitor lead to a dramatic increase in caspase-3/7 activity when the cells were cultured in medium without glucose for 24 hours. The increase could be blocked with cycloheximide (translation elongation inhibitor) or harringtonine (protein synthesis initiation inhibitor). Caspase activity was monitored with the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay. A549 cells exposed to glucose-free medium had an increase in cytotoxicity that was partially abrogated by cycloheximide treatment. Knockdown of eEF2 kinase expression with siRNA treatment doubled the amount of cell death in glucose-free media, and cycloheximide treatment reduced cell death to about half. Cytotoxicity was monitored with the CellTox™ Green Cytotoxicity Assay using the end-point protocol. (4709)

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Mol. Cell. Proteomics 15(10), 3203-3219. Phosphoproteomics to Characterize Host Response During Influenza A Virus Infection of Human Macrophages. 2016

Söderholm, S., Kainov, D.E., Öhman, T., Denisova, O.V., Schepens, B., Kulesskiy, E., Imanishi, S.Y., Corthals, G., Hintsanen, P., Aittokallio, T., Saelens, X., Matikainen, S., and Nyman, T.A.

Notes: The authors utilized phosphoproteomics to identify host factors that are activated upon Influenza A infection. In total, 1116 proteins showed changes in regulation including cyclin-dependent kinases. The authors tested the effects of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors on cell viability and caspase activation using the CellTiter Glo® and Caspase-Glo® assays. (5154)

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