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Citations Search

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14, 1–12. Analysis of sensitivity and cell death pathways mediated by anti-cancer drugs using three-dimensional culture system. 2018

Kinoshita, T., Higuchi, H., Niibe, A.-K., Sakai, G., Hamamoto, Y., Takaishi, H. and Kanai, T.

Notes: 3D spheroid cultures were used to compare the anti-cancer cell effects between conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and selected multi-kinase inhibitors. Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay was used to study cell death. (4996) (4996)

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Toxicol. Lett. 291, 138-148. Cytotoxicity of 34 FDA approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors in primary rat and human hepatocytes. 2018

Zhang J., Ren, L., Yang, X., White, M., Greenhaw, J., Harris, T., Wu, Q., Bryant, M., Papoian, T., Mattes, W., and Shi, Q.

Notes: These authors used the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and CellTiter-Glo® Assays in studies to determine the cytotoxicity of  34 small molecule kinase inhibitors in primary rat and human hepatocytes. (5009)

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Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 348, 1-13.. Doxorubicin triggers bioenergetic failure and p53 activation in mouse stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.


Cunha-Oliveira, T., Ferreira, L.L., Coelho, A.R., Deus, C.M., and Oliveira, P.J.


Notes: These authors used cultured induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived mouse cardiomyocytes to investigate the effects of Doxorubicin on cell and mitochondrial metabolism and on stress responses.They used the Caspase-Glo® 3/7  and Caspase-Glo®-9 Assays to detect the respective caspase activities, and the CellTiter-Glo® Assay to determine cell viability. (5008)

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Oncogene 37(1), 39-51. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 has a differential impact on MCT1 and MCT4 lactate carrier expression in colonic epithelial cells: a condition favoring metabolic symbiosis between colorectal cancer and stromal cells. 2018

Diehl, K., Dinges, L.A., Helm, O., Ammar, N., Plundrich, D., Arlt, A., Röcken, C., Sebens S., and Schäfer, H.

Notes: These authors studied the role of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in adaptation to inflammatory/environmental stress in malignant colonic epithelial cells. They used the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay and pGL3-Basic Vector in reporter assays, and the CellTiter® 96, Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and Glucose Uptake-Glo™ Assays to investigate Nrf2 effects on cell viability and metabolism. They found that Nrf2 has an impact on the metabolism in premalignant colonic epithelial cells exposed to inflammatory M1 macrophages, an effect accompanied by growth and survival alterations.  (5014)

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Mol. Cell 37(3), 126–33. A bioassay for optimization of macrophage-conditioned medium as a culture supplement to promote hybridoma cell survival and growth. 2018

Hnasko, R., Lin, A.V., Stanker, L., and McGarvey, J.

Notes: Researchers evaluated the treatment of hybridomas with macrophage-conditioned medium using the CytoTox-Glo™ Assay to monitor cell cytotoxicity and the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay to monitor caspase activation. (5032)

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Nat. Comm. 9(1), 1944. Autophagy promotes the survival of dormant breast cancer cells and metastatic tumour recurrence. 2018

Vera-Ramirez, L., Vodnala, S.K., Nini, R., Hunter, K.W., and Green, J.E.

Notes: Researchers evaluated the impact of inhibiting autophagy on cells in vitro using cell viability, cytotoxicity and caspase activity assays. (5033)

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Nat. Comm. 9(1), 1591. Multi-faceted immunomodulatory and tissue-tropic clinical bacterial isolate potentiates prostate cancer immunotherapy. 2018

Anker, J.F., Naseem, A.F., Mok, H., Schaeffer, A.J., Abdulkadir, S.A., and Thumbikat, P.

Notes: These authors investigated whether localized bacterial infection could be used to help stimulate an immune response and render prostate tumors susceptible to immune checkpoint inhibitors. They showed that an E.coli strain (CP-1) isolated from a prostate infection colonized prostate tumors and enhanced immune checkpoint inhibition. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay, CellTiter® AQueous ONE Solution and the CytoTox® 96 Assay were used to assess apoptosis, cell viability and cytotoxicity, respectively.  (5047)

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Apoptosis 23, 329–342. Resveratrol analogue, (E)-N-(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide induces G2/M cell cycle arrest through the activation of p53-p21CIP1/WAF1 in human colorectal HCT116 cells. 2018

Cheah, F.K., Leong, K.H., Thomas, N.F., Chin, H.K., Ariffin, A., and Awang, K.

Notes: These authors investigated the mechanism of action of the synthesized resveratrol analogue, (E)-N-(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide (CS) on colorectal cancer cells. They report that CS exerts a potent suppressive effect on HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, but not on normal colon cells. CS caused apoptosis via activation of an extrinsic pathway leading to caspase activation and cell cycle arrest from activated p53. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7, 8 and 9 Assays were used to detect caspase activation. (5045)

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Cancer Lett. 425, 101-115. Sorafenib improves alkylating therapy by blocking induced inflammation, invasion and angiogenesis in breast cancer cells. 2018

Zanotto-Filho, A., Rajamanickam, S., Loranc, E., Masamsetti, V.P., Gorthi, A., Romero, J.C., Tonapi, S., Gonçalves, R.M., Reddick, R.L., Benavides, R., Kuhn, J., Chen, Y., and Bishop, A.J.

Notes: Sorafenib is a small-molecule inhibitor that inhibits multiple kinases in vitro, These authors investigated the antitumoral effect of combining sorafenib with the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide in a breast cancer model (orthotopic 4T1-12B cells). They used the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and CellTiter-Glo® Assays to assess apoptosis and cell viability, respectively. (5048)

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Nature 543(7644), 205-210. Autophagy maintains the metabolism and function of young and old stem cells. 2017

Ho, T.T., Warr, M.R., Adelman, E.R., Lansinger, O.M., Flach, J., Verovskaya, E.V., Figueroa, M.E., and Passegué, E.

Notes: These authors investigated how autophagy controls haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, and how changes in autophagy levels affect HSC ageing. They showed that loss of autophagy in HSCs causes accumulation of mitochondria and an activated metabolic state. They used the Caspase-Glo® and CellTiter-Glo Assays to detect apoptosis and ATP, respectively, and used the Glucose Uptake-Glo™ Assay to study metabolic changes. (5018)

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Cancer Res. 77, 4102–15. The alkylating chemotherapeutic temozolomide induces metabolic stress in IDH1-mutant cancers and potentiates NAD+ depletion-mediated cytotoxicity. 2017

Tateishi, K., Higuchi, F., Miller, J.J., Koerner, M.V.A., Lelic, N., Shankar, G.M., Tanaka, S., Fisher, D.E., Batchelor, T.T., Iafrate, A.J., Wakimoto, H., Chi, A.S. and Cahill, D.P.

Notes: Cell viability of IDH1 wild-type or mutant cell lines under treatment conditions was assessed using the CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. From these numbers, the IC50 values were calculated. To evaluate apoptosis, 7,000–8,000 cells were treated with DMSO or compounds singly or in combination (12.5nmol/L NAMPT inhibitors and/or 200μmol/L temozolomide or 50μmol/L Z-VAD-FMK) for 6 or 24 hours and then measured using Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay. Changes in NAD+, NADH, NADP+, and NADPH were assessed using the NAD/NADH-Glo™ and NADP/NADPH-Glo™ Assays. (4946)

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Biochem. J. 474(10), 1591-1602. The human cancer cell active toxin Cry41Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis acts like its insecticidal counterparts. 2017

Krishnan, V., Domanska, B., Elhigazi, A., Afolabi, F., West, M.J., and Crickmore, N.

Notes: This study investigated the effect of the Bacillus thuringiensi toxins parasporin 3 on HepG2 cells. Understanding how Bt toxins target human cell lines has implications for the risk assessment of products containing these toxins, such as transgenic, insect-resistant plants. The authors used the CellTiter®-Blue, CellTiter®-Glo, Caspase-Glo® and ROS-Glo™ assays to assess viability, apoptosis induction, and oxidative stress in cultured cells exposed to the toxin. (5038)

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Cell Signal 28, 284–93. Elongation factor 2 kinase promotes cell survival by inhibiting protein synthesis without inducing autophagy. 2016

Moore, C.E.J., Wang, X., Xie, J., Pickford, J., Barron, J., Regufe da Mota, S., Versele, M. and Proud, C.G.

Notes: Inhibition of HCT116 cell eEF2 kinase with the JAN-849 inhibitor lead to a dramatic increase in caspase-3/7 activity when the cells were cultured in medium without glucose for 24 hours. The increase could be blocked with cycloheximide (translation elongation inhibitor) or harringtonine (protein synthesis initiation inhibitor). Caspase activity was monitored with the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay. A549 cells exposed to glucose-free medium had an increase in cytotoxicity that was partially abrogated by cycloheximide treatment. Knockdown of eEF2 kinase expression with siRNA treatment doubled the amount of cell death in glucose-free media, and cycloheximide treatment reduced cell death to about half. Cytotoxicity was monitored with the CellTox™ Green Cytotoxicity Assay using the end-point protocol. (4709)

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Clin. Can. Res. 22, 4452-65. Myc-driven glycolysis is a therapeutic target in glioblastoma.  2016

Tateishi, K., Iafrate, A.J., Ho, Q., Curry, W.T., Batchelor, T.T., Flaherty, K.T., Onozato, M.L., Lelic, N., Sundaram, S., Cahill, D.P., Chi, A.S. and Wakimoto, H.

Notes: CellTiter-Glo® Cell Viability Assay was used to assess the vulnerability of myc-driven cancers to inhibitors of the NAMPT. Sensitivity was correlated to the level of myc expression. Apoptosis was assessed with the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay. The NAD/NADH-Glo® Assay was used to provide a quantitative measure of NAD+ in the cells under study. (4835)

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Cell Death Dis. 7, e2073. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein mediates tumor cell resistance to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity 2016

Evans, M.K., Sauer, S.J., Nath, S., Robinson, T.J., Morse, M.A. and Devi, G.R.

Notes: The authors demonstrate that the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) drives anti-EGFR and anti-HER antibody resistance in inflammatory breast cancer both through its effect on caspase and suppression of ROS accumulation. They use the CytoTox ONE Homogeneous Membrane Integrity Assay to assess cytotoxicity in wild type SUM149 and SUM190 cells, and  rSUM149 and rSUM190 cells (cell lines that have acquired resistance to treatment agents) upon treatment with cytotoxic agents. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay was used to assess apoptosis in wild type cells, rSUM149 and in cells over expressing XIAP (treated and untreated). (4726)

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Tumor Biol. , ePub ahead of Print Aug 5. Approach for chemosensitization of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer by cucurbitacin B 2015

El-Senduny, F.F., Badria, F.A., EL-Waseef, A.M., Chauha, S.C. and Halaweish

Notes: The authors of this study sought to determine whether cucurbitacin B has antitumor activity against the ovarian cancer cell line A2870 and whether it can sensitize the cisplatin-resistant cell line A2780CP to treatment. They compared caspase activity in A2780CP cells either preincubated with cucurbitacin B before treatment with cisplatin or cells not pretreated using the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Caspase Assay. Oxidized and total glutathione were measured from both cell lines (before and after cisplatin exposure, with and without preincubation with cucurbitacin B) using the GSH/GSSH-Glo™ Glo Assay. The level of reactive oxygen species in cell lines was also measured by detecting ROS converted to H2O2 using the ROS-Glo™ Assay. Cell Viabilty of 3D spheroids formed from the A2780CP cell line was assessed using the CellTiter-Glo® 3D Cell Viability Assay. (4581)

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Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 13, 456–65. Bioluminescent, nonlytic, real-time cell viability assay and use in inhibitor screening 2015

Duellman, S.J., Zhou, W., Meisenheimer, P., Vidugiris, G., Cali, J., Gautam, P., Wennerberg, K. and Vidugiriene, J.

Notes: The authors describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. They monitored cell health for 72 hours from the same test samples, distinguished differential cell growth, and investigated drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements enabled them to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 minutes of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects.They then screened an oncology compound library (Z′ = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points. (4590)

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Br. J. Cancer 112, 1536–45. Low-temperature plasma treatment induces DNA damage leading to necrotic cell death in primary prostate epithelial cells. 2015

Hirst, A.M., Simms, M.S., Mann, V.M., Maitland, N.J., O’Connell, D. and Frame, F.M.

Notes: Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas (LTP) were examined for the mechanism of toxicity on cultured immortalized and primary prostate cancer cells. LTP induces an increase in H2O2 in the culture media as judged by the ROS-Glo™ H2O2 Assay leading to cell death as measured with the CellTox™ Green Cytotoxicity Assay. CellTox™ Green was quantified with a plate reader and verified by fluorescent microscopy. The cells experienced no caspase-3/7 activation as judged through use of the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay, leading to the conclusion of necrotic cell death. (4711)

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PLos ONE 10, e0129058. New small molecules targeting apoptosis and cell viability in osteosarcoma.  2015

Maugg, D. et al.

Notes: A phenotypic screen of a 25,000 compound library for inhibitors of U2OS osteosarcoma cell line growth identified two compounds that showed activity of osteosarcomas and not HepG2 or primary human osteoblasts.  Cell Viability in the primary and secondary screens was monitored with the CellTiter-Blue® Cell Viability Assay.  Subsequent studies identified the mechanism of cell death as apoptosis as judged by the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay and cytotoxicity measured with the CellTox™ Green Cytotoxicity Assay.

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Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 446, 30-6. Reversine increases the plasticity of lineage-committed preadipocytes to osteogenesis by inhibiting adipogenesis through induction of TGF-β pathway in vitro. 2014

Park, J.G., Lee, D.-H., Moon, Y.S., and Kim, K.-H.

Notes: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with various levels of reversine and monitored for induction of apoptosis with the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay with data collected on a GloMax® Instrument. Changes in gene expression of three targets upon reversine treatment were examined through total RNA isolation with the ReliaPrep™ RNA Cell Miniprep System, reverse transcription with the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System followed by dye-based qPCR analysis. (4596)

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Biochem. Pharmacol. October 24, epub ahead of print. Ibandronate  increases the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene FAS by epigenetic mechanisms in tumor cells. 2012

Thaler, R., Spitzer, S., Karlic, H., Berger, C., Klaushofer, K. and Varga, F.

Notes: Caspase-Glo® 3/7 and Caspase-Glo® 8 Assays were used to assess activation of apoptosis pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells (clonal mouse), U-2 OS human osteoscarcoma cell line and CCL-51 cells (mouse mammary gland tumor cells). Although ibandronate reduced cell proliferation in all cell lines, its effect on activation of caspases was different in neoplastic versus non-neoplastic cells. Caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 activities were reduced in MC3T3-E1 cells after 72 hours treatment with ibandronate. In two tumor cell lines assayed, opposite results were seen: caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 activities increased in U-2 OS cells and in CCL-51 cells. Luminescence was detected using a GloMax® 96 Microplate Luminometer. (Figure 1 in the paper)

To analyze FAS promoter methylation levels, fragments of the targeted promoter regions were generated by digestion of genomic DNA using CpG methylation insensitive restriction enzymes MboII and PstI from cells cultured in the presence of ibandronate for varying lengths of time. The authors demonstrated that FAS promoter methylation is altered in tumor cells in the presence of ibandronate. (4253)

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J. Biol. Chem. 287, 14052–68. MDM2 protein-mediated ubiquitination of NUMB protein: Identification of a second physiological substrate of MDM2 that employs a dual-site docking mechanism. 2012

Sczaniecka, M., Gladstone, K., Pettersson, S., McLaren, L., Huart, A.S. and Wallace, M.

Notes: The E3 ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2 (MDM2) regulates transcriptional activity and expression levels of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. In this article, the authors show that the cell fate determinant NUMB interacts with MDM2, disrupting the interaction of MDM2 and p53 and preventing the ubiquitination of p53. To study protein-protein interactions between NUMB and MDM2, the authors used the pFN2A (GST) Flexi® Vector to express full-length and partial NUMB sequences as GST fusion proteins for protein pull-down experiments. To examine their hypothesis that the interaction between NUMB and MDM2 increases p53 levels and thus apoptosis in cells, they treated ZR75 human breast carcinoma cells and A375 human melanoma cells with NUMB-derived peptides and small molecule ligands that block the interaction between NUMB and MDM2. These treatments resulted in increased levels of p53 protein, Annexin V staining as well as caspase-3/7 activity, as determined using the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay System. (4351)

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PLos ONE 6(6), e20994. Antimetastatic Effects of Phyllanthus on Human Lung (A549) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines. 2011

Lee S.H., Jaganath I.B., Wang S.M., and Sekaran, S.D.

Notes: These authors investigated the ability of Phyllanthus plant extracts to affect the metastatic activity of human lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. They initially used CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay and the GloMax®-Multi Detection System absorbance module to determine cytotoxicity of various Phyllanthus extracts. After determining the effective dose, the authors investigated the ability of these plant compounds to inhibit/reduce metastatic activity. They then evaluated the mechanism of cell death in treated cells using the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay and the Glomax® Multi Detection System luminescence module to measure caspase activity, and the CytoTox-ONE™ Homogeneous Membrane Integrity Assay to measure LDH activity. (4196)

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Blood 117(1), 352-61. IL-6 in human cytomegalovirus secretome promotes angiogenesis and survival of endothelial cells through the stimulation of survivin. 2011

Botto, S., Streblow, D.N., DeFilippis, V.,  White, L., Kreklywich, C.N., Smith, P.P., Caposio, P.

Notes: In this study, caspase-3/7 activity in HUVECs was measured using the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay. Luminescence was measured with the GloMax®-96 Microplate Luminometer. (4207)

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J. Biol. Chem. 286, 21546–21554. TWEAK induces apoptosis through a death-signaling complex comprising Receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and caspase-8. 2011

Ikner, A. and Ashkenazi, A.

Notes: The authors of this study set out to describe the mechanism of cell death through which TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) exerts its apoptotic effect on certain cancer cells. The used the CellTiter-Glo® Cell Viability Assay and the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay to investigate cell viability and mechanism of cell death in HSC3 cells treated with TWEAK. They looked at caspase-8 activity in cells treated with TWEAK in the presence or absence of a caspase-8 inhibitor using the Caspase-Glo® 8 Assay. They showed that TWEAK induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. (4170)

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