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Neurochem. Int. 38, 199-207. Hypoglycaemia-induced cell death: Features of neuroprotection by the P2 receptor antagonist basilen blue. 2000

Cavaliere, F., D´Ambrosi, N., Sancesario, G., Bernardi, G., Volonté, C.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to determine the number of TUNEL-positive cells of rat primary cerebellar granule neurons cultured under hypoglycaemic conditions for three hours. Cells showed a dramatic increase in apoptotic nuclei under these conditions but the P2 receptor antagonist basilen blue prevent the increase. (2206)

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Hum. Gene Ther. 11, 1033-1045. Inhibition of Fas-mediated apoptosis in mouse insulinoma betaTC-3 cells via an anti-Fas ribozyme. 2000

Klein, D., Ricordi, C., Pugliese, A., and Pastori, R.L.

Notes: Mouse insulinoma betaTC-3 cells were treated with anti-Fas antibody and apoptosis measured with the Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) using flow cytometry. The study also includes a positive and negative control. (0049)

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Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 122, 97-109. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase blocks proliferation of neural progenitor cells. 2000

Learish, R.D., Bruss, M.D., and Haak-Frendscho, M.

Notes: A primary cell line from rat subventricular zone which remains undifferentiated over time was developed as a model for MAPK activation. Cell were stimulated with 20 ng/ml bFGF and 20 ng/ml EGF (Promega) to activate MAPK. The MAPK pathway was inhibited with either U0126 (Promega) or  PD98059. Immunocytochemistry was performed with the Anti-ERK 1/2 pAb (1:100 dilution) to detect both active and inactive forms of MAPK proteins and with the Anti-ACTIVE™ MAPK pAb (1:100 dilution) to specifically detect the dually phosphorylated, active forms of MAPK. Cells were also immunostained with the neuron specific marker Anti-III-tubulin mAb (0.5 µg/ml). Cell proliferation was monitored with the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay System. Apoptosis within the cell population was monitored using the DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System. (2391)

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Biol. Reprod. 62(6), 1486-1494. Involvement of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Bromocriptine-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pituitary GH3 Cells 2000

Kanasaki, H. , Fukunaga, K. , Takahashi, K. , Miyazaki, K. , and Miyamoto, E.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to assess apoptosis in GH3 rat pituitary adenoma cells treated with bromocriptine. Bromocriptine was also shown to activate p38 kinase. Inclusion of p38 kinase inhibitors with the bromocriptine significantly decreased the number of apoptotic GH3 cells. (0044)

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FASEB J. 14, 1567-1576. Lipid hydroperoxide-induced apoptosis in human colonic CaCo-2 cells is associated with an early loss of cellular redox balance 2000

Wang, T.G., Gotoh, Y., Jennings, M.H., Rhoads, C.A. and Aw, T.Y.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to assess apoptotic response of a human colonic cell line (CaCo-2) to lipid hydroperoxide levels. Dose dependence between 0 and 25µM was studied for 24hrs, and a time course using 10µM was done from 0-48 hrs. Cells were washed with PBS, fixed in 1% formaldehyde, and permeabilized with 70% ice cold ethanol at -20 degrees overnight. The permeabilized cells were washed, labeled with TdT and fluorescein, and incubated with 5µg/ml PI. Labeled cells were quantified by flow cytometry. (2126)

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J. Neurochem. 76, 56-68. Neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects of nitric oxide on fetal midbrain cultures. 2000

Canals, S., Casarejos, M.J., Rodríguez-Martín, E., de Bernardo, S., Mena, M.A.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to examine diethylamine-nitric oxide complexed with sodium (NO donor) on primary rat neuronal-enriched midbrain cultures. The cells showed a dose-dependent increase in TUNEL-positive cells. Details are provided on how the cells were quantified under the microscope. (2204)

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Neuropharmacology 39, 2090-2100. Nitric oxide induces differentiation in the NB69 human catecholamine-rich cell line. 2000

Rodríguez-Martín, E., Casarejos, M.J., Bazán, E., Canals, S., Herranz, A.S., Mena, M.A.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to determine the number of apoptotic cells in NB69 human neuroblastoma cells exposed to increasing amounts of SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine). No real increase in apoptotic cells was seen with levels as high as 750µM. (2205)

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Brain Res. 852, 326-334. Oxidative stress and Ca2+ influx upregulate calpain and induce apoptosis in PC12 cells. 2000

Ray, S.K., Fidan, M., Nowak, M.W., Wilford, G.G., Hogan, E.L., Banik, N.L.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein was used to detect apoptotic nuclei in PC12 cells treated with either calcium ionophores or hydrogen peroxide. Update: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein has been renamed to DeadEnd™ Fluorimetric TUNEL System. (0503)

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Clin. Can. Res. 6, 4874-4884. Paclitaxel enhances the effects of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody ImClone C225 in mice with metastatic human bladder transitional cell carcinoma. 2000

Inoue, K., Slaton, J.W., Perrotte, P., Davis, D.W., Bruns, C.J., Hicklin, D.J., McConkey, D.J., Sweeney, P., Radinsky, R., Dinney, C.P.N.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to examine apoptotic cells in mouse microvessels. The assays were performed on 8µm thick paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Animals treated with the anti-EGF receptor mAb C225 demonstrated many more TUNEL-positive cells. (2208)

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J. Biol. Chem. 275(48), 37993-37998. PACT, a stress-modulated cellular activator of interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. 2000

Patel, C.V., Handy, I., Goldsmith, T., Patel, R.C.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to assess apoptosis in HeLa cells overexpressing an activator of RNA-dependent protein kinase. (2200)

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J. Cell Biol. 149(2), 503-520. Plakoglobin suppresses epithelial proliferation and hair growth in vivo. 2000

Charpentier, E. , Lavker, R. M. , Acquista, E. , Cowin, P.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to analyze apoptotic cells in 5µm thick, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse backskin sections. (0020)

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Mol. Cell 6, 1267-1273. Polycystin-1, the gene product of PKD1, induces resistance to apoptosis and sponateous tubulogenesis in MDCK cells. 2000

Boletta, A., Qian, F., Onuchic, L.F., Bhunia, A.K., Phakdeekitcharoen, B., Hanaoka, K., Guggino, W., Monaco, L., Germino, G.G.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to examine apoptosis in PKD1+ and PKD1– MDCK cell lines. Upon serum withdrawal, the knockout cells had vastly larger numbers of apoptotic cells over control cells. (2202)

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Curr. Biol. 9, 1061-1064. Programmed cell death of the dinoflagellate Peridinium gatunense is mediated by CO2 limitation and oxidative stress. 2000

Vardi, A., Berman-Frank, I., Rozenberg, T. , Hada, O., Kaplan, A., and Levine, A.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to label apoptotic Peridinium gatunense cells treated with increasing amounts of inorganic carbon. The cells were fixed in 50% acetone or methanol, washed in graded ethanol (100%, 80%, 50%, 20%) and then PBS. The cells were permeabilized with Triton® X-100 then processed for the TUNEL assay. (0046)

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J. Neurochem. 74(6), 2412-2424. Retinoic acid-mediated enhancement of the cholinergic/neuronal nitric oxide synthase phenotype of the medial septal SN56 clone: Establishment of a nitric oxide-sensitive proapoptotic state. 2000

Personett, D., Fass, U., Panickar, K., McKinney, M.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to identify apoptotic cells in cultures of SN56, a murine cholinergic cell line. The SN56 cells were treated with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). Retinoic Acid treatment of the cells increased SNAP sensitivity and methylthiocitrulline attenuated the SNAP sensitivity as well as a cell permeable caspase-3 inhibitor, Acetyl-DEVD-CHO. A lot of detail is provided for the TUNEL procedure and treatments. (2199)

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Am. J. Pathol. 156(1), 201-207. Temporal events in skin injury and the early adaptive responses in ultraviolet-irradiated mouse skin. 2000

Ouhtit, A., Muller, H.K., Davis, D.W., Ullrich, S.E., McConkey, D., Ananthaswamy, H.N.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to examine apoptosis in mouse skin exposed to UV irradiation to mimic sunburn. The assay was performed on 5µm formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues treated with proteinase K for permeabilization. (2207)

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EMBO J. 19, 3325-3336. The apoptotic signaling pathway activated by Toll-like receptor-2 2000

Aliprantis, A.O., Yang, R.-B., Weiss, D.S., Godowski, P. and Zychlinsky, A.

Notes: Apoptosis was studied by TUNEL assay using the Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) and PI staining. Amount of apoptosis was quantitated by flow cytometry. Test compounds that activate the TLR2 pathway were tested for cytotoxicity using the CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay. The cells were at 2.4x104 cells/well. (2128)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97(17), 9525-9530. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor capsulin controls spleen organogenesis. 2000

Lu, J. , Chang, P. , Richardson, J. A. , Gan, L. , Weiler, H. , Olson, E. N.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to examine apoptotic nuclei in 10µm cross sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin embedded mouse embryos. Capsulin wildtype and mutant embryos had a distinct difference in abdominal sections with regards to TUNEL staining. (0024)

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J. Neurosci. 20(6), 2295-2306. The flathead mutation causes CNS-specific developmental abnormalities and apoptosis. 2000

Roberts, M. R. , Bittman, K. , Li, W. W. , French, R. , Mitchell, B. , LoTurco, J. J. , D'Mello, S. R.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to detect apoptotic nuclei in 10µm cryosections of rat brain. The preparation of the tissue for staining is documented and ends with fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. The sections are treated with proteinase K then fixed again. The system was used to look at differences in apoptotic nuclei in the brain of wildtype and flathead/flathead rats. (0022)

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FASEB J. 14(5), 691-698. Uric acid, a peroxynitrite scavenger, inhibits CNS inflammation, blood-CNS barrier permeability changes, and tissue damage in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. 2000

Hooper, D. C. , Scott, G. S. , Zborek, A. , Mikheeva, T. , Kean, R. B. , Koprowski, H. , Spitsin, S. V.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to examine apoptosis in 15µm paraformaldehyde-fixed, frozen sections of mouse spinal cord. The researcher were studying the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and the effect of uric acid and myelin basic protein on the pathology. (0021)

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J. Immunol. 162, 7241-7248. A central role for alpha beta T cells in the pathogenesis of murine lupus. 1999

Seery, J.P., Wang, E.C.Y., Cattell, V., Carroll, J.M., Owen, M.J., Watt, F.J.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein was used to label TUNEL-positive cells in transgenic mouse skin. The formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were deparaffinized, permeabilized with proteinase K and formalin-fixed a second time. After this final fixation, the 5µm sections were processed for TUNEL. Good detail is provided for the tissue processing.Update: The Apoptosis Detection System has been renamed the DeadEND™ Fluorometirc TUNEL System (Cat.# G3250). (0420)

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J. Neurosci. 19, 4778-4785. Activation of caspase-3 in the retina of transgenic rats with the rhodopsin mutation S334ter during photoreceptor degeneration. 1999

Liu, C., Li, Y., Peng, M., Laties, A.M., Wen, R.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein, was used to label TUNEL-positive nuclei in 10µm sections of rat retina. A lot of detail is provided for processing of the tissue prior to the TUNEL reaction. The name of the Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein, has changed to DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System. (0772)

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J. Immunol. 162, 2024-2034. CD40 activation boosts T cell immunity in vivo by enhancing T cell clonal expansion and delaying peripheral T cell deletion. 1999

Maxwell, J.R., Campbell, J.D., Kim, C.H., Vella, A.T.

Notes: The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein was used to identify TUNEL-positive cells in sections of mouse lymph node and spleen. The tissues were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde then paraffin embedded for sectioning. The sections were attached to slides, depariffinized, permeabilized with proteinase K then stained for TUNEL-positive cells. A lot of detail is provided for tissue processing. (0705)

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Science 285, 736-739. Cell activation and apoptosis by bacterial lipoproteins through toll-like receptor-2. 1999

Aliprantis, A.O., Yang, R.-B., Mark, M.R., Suggett, S., Devaux, B., Radolf, J.D., Klimpel, G.R., Godowski, P. and Zychlinsky, A.

Notes: 293 cells stably expressing the human toll-like receptor-2 were challenged with various agents and analyzed for apoptosis. One test was a visual inspection for blebbing and the other was quantitation by TUNEL staining, using the Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL Assay), followed by FACS analysis. In another assay for THP-1 cell death, the CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to monitor LDH release in response to bacterial lipoproteins. (1508)

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J. Neurosci. 19, 637-643. Contrasting role of presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 in neuronal differentiation in vitro. 1999

Hong, C.S., Caromile, L., Nomata, Y., Mori, H., Bredesen, D.E., Koo, E.H.

Notes: The authors used the Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein, to assay for apoptosis in the NTera2 human teratocarcinoma (NT2) cell line following expression of antisense Presenilin-1 and Presenilin-2. The name of the Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein, has changed to the DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System. (1012)

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J. Biol. Chem. 274, 37070–37078. Cytosolic chaperonin is up-regulated during cell growth: Preferential expression and binding to tubulin at G1/S transition through early S phase. 1999

Yokota, S., Yanagi, H., Yura, T. and Kubota, H.

Notes: The SV Total RNA Isolation System was used to isolate total RNA from various mouse cells lines: DA3 IL-3 dependent myeloid cells; 7TD1 IL-6-dependent B-cell hybridoma; FM3A mammary carcinoma; L5287Y lymphoma; WEHI-3 myeloma; LLC1 Lewis lung carcinoma; L929 fibroblast; J774A macrophage-like cells. Five micrograms of each RNA was used for Northern analysis. The Apoptosis Detection System, Fluorescein (DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System) was used to determine if HL60 were apoptotic when treated with retionic acid to induce growth arrest. Less than 10% of the cells were positive in the TUNEL assay (data not shown). (0113)

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