We believe this site might serve you best:

United States

English Continue

This country code will remain if no action is taken to change it.

Don't see your country?
Promega Corporation

The PowerPlex® Y23 System: A New Y-STR Multiplex for Casework and Database Applications

  • Print
  • Email
  • Download PDF

Jonelle M. Thompson, Margaret M. Ewing, Dawn R. Rabbach, Patricia M. Fulmer, Cynthia J. Sprecher and Douglas R. Storts

Promega Corporation Publication Date: 2012

Introduction

Y-STR testing is an established tool in the forensic casework, paternity testing and genealogy communities. Commercially available kits for Y-STR testing include the PowerPlex® Y System with 12 Y-STR loci and Applied Biosystems AmpFlSTR® Yfiler® kit, which includes the PowerPlex® Y loci plus five additional loci for a total of 17 Y-STR loci. There has been a significant amount of research (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) into additional Y-STR loci that may increase the ability to discriminate between individuals. The PowerPlex® Y23 System includes six of these Y-STR loci. In addition, the PowerPlex® Y23 System, while optimized for extracted DNA and casework amplifications, allows direct amplification from FTA® card punches, pretreated swabs and pretreated punches from S&S 903 paper or Bode Buccal DNA Collector™ devices.

The PowerPlex® Y23 System

The PowerPlex® Y23 System (Cat.# DC2320 and DC2305) is a five-dye multiplex system that combines the 17 Y-STR loci currently included in Y-STR kits (DYS19, DYS385 a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) with six new highly discriminating Y-STR loci (DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576 and DYS643). See Figure 1. The system includes the same dyes as the other Promega five-dye systems (e.g., PowerPlex® ESX, ESI, 18D and 21 Systems), and amplification products can be detected using the Applied Biosystems® 3100, 3130 or 3500 Genetic Analyzer. The PowerPlex® Y23 thermal cycling program requires one hour and 40 minutes for extracted DNA (90 minutes for direct amplification), allowing rapid turnaround of results.

10436MA_1000pxFigure 1. The PowerPlex® Y23 System allows co-amplification and four-color detection of 23 male-specific STR loci.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/10400-10499/10436ma_1000px.jpg?la=en

Gene Diversity and Mutation Rates

Vermeulen et.al (2) analyzed 67 Y-STR loci with a global set of male DNA samples. From that study, the six additional loci included in the PowerPlex® Y23 system were considered the most informative for differentiation of male haplotypes. One potential reason for the added discrimination of these loci is their mutation rates. With the exception of DYS643, these additional Y-STR loci exhibit relatively high mutation rates, with the mutation rates for DYS570 and DYS576 estimated to be >1% . The gene diversities of loci included in the PowerPlex® Y23 System are shown in Table 1. The high gene diversities of the six additional Y-STR loci included in PowerPlex® Y23 increase the ability of this system to distinguish individuals. The high mutation rates contribute to more allelic diversity with these loci and thus a better ability to distinguish between family members. Of course, these higher mutation rates must be taken into consideration for paternity testing or missing persons cases in which other family members may be used as references.

Table 1. Gene Diversity of Loci Included in Commercially Available Y-STR Systems.
Locus Gene Diversity PowerPlex® Y System AmpFlSTR® Yfiler® Kit PowerPlex® Y23 System
DYS643 0.92(5)    
DYS570 0.85(5)    
DYS481 0.85(2)    
DYS385 a/b1 0.83(6)
DYS576 0.82(5)    
DYS549 0.78(5)    
DYS458 0.78(6)  
DYS390 0.75(6)
DYS533 0.75(5)    
DYS635 0.71(6)  
DYS456 0.70(6)  
DYS448 0.69(6)  
DYS438 0.68(6)
DYS439 0.67(6)
DYS392 0.64(6)
DYS19 0.64(6)
DYS437 0.62(6)
DYS389II 0.62(6)
Y-GATA-H4 0.60(6)  
DYS389I 0.56(6)
DYS391 0.53(6)
DYS393 0.46(6)

Amplification of Extracted DNA and Casework Samples

The PowerPlex® Y23 System is optimized for amplification of 0.5ng of extracted DNA (Figure 2). However, the PowerPlex® Y23 System is a robust system that allows amplification of small amounts of male genomic DNA in the presence of excess female genomic DNA. Figure 3, Panel A, shows amplification of 125pg of male genomic DNA, and Panel B shows amplification of 125pg of male genomic DNA with 2,000ng of female genomic DNA. This figure shows a full Y-STR profile in a sample with a 16,000-fold excess of female genomic DNA. Peak heights showed only a slight decrease with the excess female genomic DNA.

11038TA_1100pxFigure 2. Amplification of 0.5ng of human male genomic DNA. DNA was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

DNA was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11038ta_1100px.jpg?la=en
11039TA_1100pxFigure 3. Amplification of extracted DNA using the PowerPlex® Y23 System. Panel A. Human male genomic DNA (125pg) was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035. Panel B. Amplification of 125pg of human male genomic DNA with 2,000ng of female genomic DNA.

Panel A. Human male genomic DNA (125pg) was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035. Panel B. Amplification of 125pg of human male genomic DNA with 2,000ng of female genomic DNA.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11039ta_1100px.jpg?la=en

Amplification of Database Samples

The PowerPlex® Y23 system is compatible with direct amplification of DNA from blood or buccal samples on FTA® card punches (Figure 4). The PowerPlex® Y23 System can be used with S&S 903 paper and Bode Buccal DNA Collector™ punches that have been pretreated with the Promega PunchSolution™ Kit (Cat.# DC9271) as well as swabs that have been pretreated with the SwabSolution™ Kit (Cat.# DC8271). See Figure 5.

11040TA_1100pxFigure 4. Direct amplification of DNA on an FTA® card punch. DNA from one 1.2mm FTA® card punch containing blood was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

DNA from one 1.2mm FTA® card punch containing blood was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11040ta_1100px.jpg?la=en
11041TA_1100pxFigure 5. Direct amplification of DNA from a swab. DNA from a buccal swab pretreated with SwabSolution™ Reagent was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

DNA from a buccal swab pretreated with SwabSolution™ Reagent was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11041ta_1100px.jpg?la=en

Conclusions

PowerPlex® Y23 is a robust system that can be used for amplification of extracted DNA as well as direct amplification. The system amplifies six new highly discriminating Y-STR loci, making it more discriminating than currently used Y-STR systems. The system also amplifies low amounts of male genomic DNA in the presence of a large excess of female genomic DNA. The rapid thermal cycling conditions significantly reduce the time required to obtain a Y-STR profile, streamlining laboratory workflows.

References

  1. Lim, S.K. et al. (2007) Variation of 52 new Y-STR loci in the Y Chromosome Consortium worldwide panel of 76 diverse individuals. Int. J. Legal Med. 121, 124–7.
  2. Vermeulen, M. et al. (2009) Improving global and regional resolution of male lineage differentiation by simple single-copy Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms. Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 3, 205–13.
  3. Geppert, M., Edelmann, J. and Lessig, R. (2009) The Y-chromosomal STRs DYS481, DYS570, DYS576 and DYS643. Legal Med. 11, S109–10.
  4. Rodig, H. et al. (2008) Evaluation of haplotype discrimination capacity of 35 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci. Forensic Sci. Int. 174, 182–8.
  5. Kayser, M. et al. (2004) A comprehensive survey of human Y-chromosomal microsatellites. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74, 1183–97.
  6. D'Amato, M.E. et al. (2010) Characterization of the highly discriminatory loci DYS449, DYS481, DYS518, DYS612, DYS626, DYS644 and DYS710. Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4, 104–10.

How to Cite This Article

Thompson, J.M. et al. The PowerPlex® Y23 System: A New Y-STR Multiplex for Casework and Database Applications. [Internet] 2012. [cited: year, month, date]. Available from: http://www.promega.com/resources/profiles-in-dna/2012/the-powerplex-y23-system-a-new-y-str-multiplex-for-casework-and-database-applications/

Thompson, J.M. et al. The PowerPlex® Y23 System: A New Y-STR Multiplex for Casework and Database Applications. Promega Corporation Web site. http://www.promega.com/resources/profiles-in-dna/2012/the-powerplex-y23-system-a-new-y-str-multiplex-for-casework-and-database-applications/ Updated 2012. Accessed Month Day, Year.

Contribution of an article to Profiles in DNA does not constitute an endorsement of Promega products.

PowerPlex is a registered trademark of Promega Corporation. PunchSolution and SwabSolution are trademarks of Promega Corporation.

AmpFlSTR and Yfiler are registered trademarks of Applera Corporation. Applied Biosystems is a registered trademark of Applied Biosystems. FTA is a registered trademark of Flinders Technologies, Pty, Ltd., and is licensed to Whatman.

Products may be covered by pending or issued patents or may have certain limitations. More information.

All prices and specifications are subject to change without prior notice.

Product claims are subject to change. Please contact Promega Technical Services or access the Promega online catalog for the most up-to-date information on Promega products.

Figures

10436MA_1000pxFigure 1. The PowerPlex® Y23 System allows co-amplification and four-color detection of 23 male-specific STR loci.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/10400-10499/10436ma_1000px.jpg?la=en
11038TA_1100pxFigure 2. Amplification of 0.5ng of human male genomic DNA. DNA was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

DNA was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11038ta_1100px.jpg?la=en
11039TA_1100pxFigure 3. Amplification of extracted DNA using the PowerPlex® Y23 System. Panel A. Human male genomic DNA (125pg) was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035. Panel B. Amplification of 125pg of human male genomic DNA with 2,000ng of female genomic DNA.

Panel A. Human male genomic DNA (125pg) was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035. Panel B. Amplification of 125pg of human male genomic DNA with 2,000ng of female genomic DNA.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11039ta_1100px.jpg?la=en
11040TA_1100pxFigure 4. Direct amplification of DNA on an FTA® card punch. DNA from one 1.2mm FTA® card punch containing blood was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

DNA from one 1.2mm FTA® card punch containing blood was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11040ta_1100px.jpg?la=en
11041TA_1100pxFigure 5. Direct amplification of DNA from a swab. DNA from a buccal swab pretreated with SwabSolution™ Reagent was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

DNA from a buccal swab pretreated with SwabSolution™ Reagent was amplified and amplification products were separated on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Genetic Analyzer using a 3kV, 5-second injection as described in the PowerPlex® Y23 System Technical Manual TMD035.

/~/media/images/resources/figures/11000-11099/11041ta_1100px.jpg?la=en

It appears that you have Javascript disabled. Our website requires Javascript to function correctly. For the best browsing experience, please enable Javascript.

Scientists at Your Service

Scientists at Your Service

We offer a range of services to help you succeed using Promega technologies. From product training to set up of automated systems and development of custom applications—our scientific support goes beyond the basics.

Ask us! We are here to help you.