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Genetics 175, 1047-1058. Single-gene detection and karyotyping using small-target fluorescence in situ hybridization on maize somatic chromosomes. 2007

Lamb, J.C., Danilova, T., Bauer, M.J., Meyer, J.M., Holland, J.J., Jensen, M.D., and Birchler, J.A.

Notes: These authors generated a set of probes that could be used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses for karyotyping studies on maize chromosomes. Specific target regions composed of genes or gene clusters and free from repetetive elements were identified for each chromosome. Target regions were amplified by PCR, gel purified using the Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System, and tested in a FISH assay. Probes showing low background were selected, subcloned into the pGEM® -T Vector and sequenced to confirm identity. (3627)

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J. Virol. 81, 173–81. In vivo packaging of brome mosaic virus RNA3, but not RNAs 1 and 2, is dependent on a cis-acting 3' tRNA-like structure. 2007

Annamalai, P. and Rao, A.L.

Notes: The brome mosaic virus (BMV) contains four RNAs (B1, B2, B3 and B4), each of which includes a tRNA-like structure (TLS) that is required for packaging in vitro. To confirm the necessity of the TLS for packaging in vivo, the authors created TLS-less B1, B2 and B3 RNAs; TLS-less B1 and B2 RNAs were packaged, while the TLS-less B3 RNA was not. Co-infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with wildtype B1 and B2 and TLS-less B3 RNA resulted in restoration of the B3 TLS. To determine whether the resulting TLS was regained by homologous or heterologous recombination with B1 or B2 RNA, the 3´ end of the B3 RNA was amplified from leaf total RNA by RT-PCR using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System, then sequenced. (3768)

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J. Biol. Chem. 282, 14194-14204. Regulation of the interleukin-7 receptor α-promoter by the Ets transcription factors PU.1 and GA-binding protein in developing B cells. 2007

Dekoter, R.P., Schweitzer, B.L., Kamath, M.B., Jones, D., Tagoh, H., Bonifer, C., Hildeman, D.A., and Huang, K.J.

Notes: The interleukin-7 receptor is composed of γ and α subunits, encoded by the genes il7rg and il7r, respectively. The α subunit is expressed in developing B cells and is downregulated upon maturation. These authors investigated the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the il7r gene using 5´ RACE, EMSA, RNA interference and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. Potential promoter regions identified by 5´ RACE analysis were cloned into the pGL3-Basic luciferase reporter vector for further study. The promoter constructs were transiently transfected into the 38B9 pro-B cell line along with the control pRL-TK Vector, which expresses Renilla luciferase, and the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System was used to assess luciferase activity from the various promoter constructs. The promoter construct having the highest activity was chosen, and site directed mutagenesis was used to identify specific regions within the promoter fragment that may be important for activity. Sequence analysis was then used to identify a conserved Ets transcription factor binding site within the putative il7r promoter region. To determine whether the ETS transcription factor GABP binds to this Ets region, the authors performed chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis with an anti-GABP antibody. Immunoprecipitated DNA was then PCR-amplified with primers specific for the Ets region or control primers. The Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System was used to purify the amplified fragments prior to semiquantitative PCR analysis. (3626)

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Forensic Sci. Int. 152, 89–94. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Belgian population sample and identification of a micro-variant with a flanking site mutation at DYS19. 2007

De Maesschalck, K,. Vanhoutte, E., Knaepen, K., Vanderheyden, N., Cassiman, J.J., and Decorte, R.

Notes: The authors collected DNA samples from 113 unrelated Belgian males. The PowerPlex® Y System and a GeneAmp® 9700 PCR system were used to amplify 12 Y-chromosome STR loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439). Amplification products were detected using an ABI PRISM® 3100 genetic analyzer and POP-6™ polymer. Allele and haplotype frequencies and haplotype diversity were calculated. A total of 99 different haplotypes were observed. (3655)

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Forensic Sci. Int. 170, 68–72. Allele frequency distribution for 21 autosomal STR loci in Bhutan. 2007

Kraaijenbrink, T., van Driem, G.L., Tshering of Gaselô, K. and de Knijff, P.

Notes: The authors determined the allele frequencies for 21 autosomal STR loci in 936 individuals from the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® kit, PowerPlex® 16 System and the F13A01, FESFPS, F13B, LPL (FFFL) Multiplex. DNA was extracted from whole blood samples using the Autopure LS® kit and amplified as directed by the manufacturers. Amplified products were detected using an ABI PRISM® 3100 Genetic Analyzer. (3822)

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Forensic Sci. Int. 168, 227–231. Allele frequency distribution for 21 autosomal STR loci in Nepal. 2007

Kraaijenbrink, T., van Driem, G.L., Opgenort, J.R., Tuladhar, N.M. and de Knijff, P.

Notes: Allele frequency data for 21 autosomal loci was studied in 953 unrelated individuals belonging to 12 major Nepalese groups. DNA was extracted from whole blood using the Autopure LS® kit, then amplified using the PowerPlex® 16 System, AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® kit or F13A01, FESFPS, F13B, LPL Multiplex (FFFL) Multiplex. Amplification products were analyzed using the ABI PRISM® 3100 Genetic Analyzer. Several new alleles not reported in the NIST short tandem repeat database were detected in this population. (3811)

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Am. J. Pathol. 171, 19–31. A sertoli cell-specific knockout of connexin43 prevents initiation of spermatogenesis. 2007

Brehm, R., Zeiler, M., Rüttinger, C., Herde, K., Kibschull, M., Winterhager, E., Willecke, K., Guillou, F., Lécureuil, C., Steger, K., Konrad, L., Biermann, K., Failing, K. and Bergmann, M.

Notes: To study the role of connexin42 (cx43) in testis development, the authors generated a conditional cx43 knockout mouse, which lacked the cx43 gene in Sertoli cells. To confirm that the cx43 gene was deleted in these mice, PCR was performed using primers specific to cx43, 1X Colorless GoTaq® Flexi Reaction Buffer, 2mM MgCl2, dNTPs and 0.15µl of GoTaq® DNA Polymerase. Tissue-specific deletion of cx43 was confirmed by amplifying RNA isolated from mouse testis, heart and tail was also confirmed using the same PCR components. (3713)

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Plant Physiol. 145, 547–558. Diversity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase mutations in resistant Lolium populations: Evaluation using clethodim. 2007

Yu, Q., Collavo, A., Zheng, M.Q., Owen, M., Sattin, M. and Powles, S.B.

Notes: The authors characterized mutations in the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) gene that confer resistance to the herbicide clethodim in the grass weed Lolium rigidum. The ACCase gene was amplified from clethidem-resistant and susceptible plants, then sequenced to identify previously unknown mutations. Amplifications of ACCase were performed using 300ng of genomic DNA and GoTaq® Green Master Mix. The Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System was used to purify PCR products directly or from agarose gels. (3721)

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Development 134, 2889–2894. A discrete period of FGF-induced Erk1/2 signalling is required for vertebrate neural specification. 2007

Stavridis, M.P., Lunn, J.S., Collins, B.J. and Storey, K.G.

Notes: The authors studied the role of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway during neural specification in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Undifferentiated ES cells express high levels of the pluripotent marker Nanog but do not express fibroblast growth factor (Fgf5), an early marker of differentiation of ES cells, or Sox1, an early neural transcription factor gene. Using quantitative PCR, levels of Nanog, Fgf5 and Sox1 mRNA were quantitated during ES differentiation in the presence and absence of a MEK inhibitor. Prior to quantitative PCR, 1µg of total RNA was reverse transcribed using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase. By measuring these mRNA levels, the authors determined that inhibition of the Erk1/2 pathway blocked ES differentiation. (3726)

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J. Biol. Chem. 282, 10290–10298. Interaction between sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and liver receptor homolog-1 reciprocally suppresses their transcriptional activities. 2007

Kanayama, T., Arito, M., So, K., Hachimura, S., Inoue, J. and Sato, R.

Notes: To explore the interaction of liver receptor homolog (LRH)-1, a known suppressor of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcriptional activity, human LRH-1 was reverse transcribed then amplified by PCR from total RNA from HepG2 cells. The amplification product was ligated into the pTargeT™ Mammalian Expression Vector to create pTarget-LRH1. For reporter experiments, a PCR fragment that encompassed the 1.3kb 5’-promoter region of the human small heterodimer partner (SHP) gene was cloned into the pGL3-Basic Vector (designated pSRB). The pGL3-Promoter Vector was used to construct pLRHREx3, which contains three LRH-1 response elements, and the insert was generated using synthetic oligonucleotides. HEK293 cells were cotransfected with 0.2µg of a promoter-firefly luciferase construct, 0.1µg of a SREBP expression plasmid, 10ng of phRL-TK Vector and 0.2 or 0.6µg of pTarget-LRH1. Alternatively, the cotransfected plasmids were 0.2µg of pSHP, 0.1µg of pTarget-LRH1, 10ng of phRL-TK Vector and 0.2 or 0.6µg of a SREBP expression plasmid. The pLRHREx3 construct (0.2µg) was cotransfected with 0.1µg of a LRH-1 expression plasmid, 0.2µg of pCMXPGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator-1α), 10ng of phRL-TK Vector, and 0.1 or 0.3µg of a pSREBP expression vector in HEK 293 cells. Luciferase expression was assayed 48 hours post-transfection using the Dual-Luciferase® Assay Reporter System. To express SREBPs and LRH-1 in vitro, inserts were ligated into the pTNT™ Vector, synthesized using the TNT® Coupled Transcription/Translation System with radiolabeled methionine. Ten microliters of the 35S-labelled protein was then used in a GST-pulldown assay. (3692)

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Mol. Endocrinol. Mar. 13, Epub (ahead of print). The micro-RNA miR-206 targets the human estrogen receptor-α, and represses ERα mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer cells. 2007

Adams, B.D., Furneaux, H. and White, B.

Notes: This study investigated the mechanism of silencing of the estrogen receptor α mRNA in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. The authors initially used software for miRNA target prediction to analyze the 3´ UTR of the human ERα gene for potential miR-206 target sites. Two potential targets, designated hERα1 and hERα2, were identified. ERα levels were repressed in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 cells transfected with a synthetic pre-miR-206 duplex, and transfection of an miR-206 expression construct into MCF-7 cells also resulted in specific inhibition of ERα expression, as measured by real-time PCR and Northern blot assays. A luciferase reporter assay was then used to determine whether miR-206 interacted directly with the hERα1 and hERα2 sites in the ERα 3´UTR. Luciferase reporter constructs containing either the hERα1 or hERα2 cloned 3´ of the firefly luciferase gene showed miR-206-medisted repression of luciferase expression in HeLa cells. Mutation of the hERα1 or hERα2 sites to disrupt hybridization with the 5´ region of miR-206 restored luciferase activity, as did co-transfection with an miRNA antagonist of miR-206. Transformation of the luciferase constructs into the breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, both of which expressed high levels of miR-206 as measured by real-time PCR, resulted in repression of luciferase activity. Treatment with estrogen was then shown to reduce miR-206 levels in MCF-7 cells. Luciferase assays were used to confirm this result, and levels of luciferase activity from the reporter constructs were increased upon exposure to estrogen, indicating that ERα agonists were able to decrease miR-206 levels in MCF- cells. (3603)

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FASEB J. 21, 1893–1901. Low expression of COX-2, reduced cumulus expansion, and impaired ovulation in SULT1E1-deficient mice. 2007

Gershon, E., Hourvitz, A., Reikhav, S., Maman, E. and Dekel, N.

Notes: The authors investigated the role of estrogen inactivation by the SULT1E1-encoded estrogen sulfotransferase in ovulation in mice. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to characterize the temporal and tissue-specific expression of SULT1E1 mRNA in ovulating mice. First-strand cDNA synthesis was performed at 37°C for 2 hours using 7.5µg of total RNA, 1µl (0.5µg) of oligo(dT)15, 40 units of RNasin® Ribonuclease Inhibitor and 200 units of M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase. (3913)

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Am. J. Pathol. 171, 1312–1323. Target genes of neuron-restrictive silencer factor are abnormally up-regulated in human myotilinopathy. 2007

Barrachina, M., Moreno, J., Juvés, S., Moreno, D., Olivé, M. and Ferrer, I.

Notes: These authors used chromatin immunoprecipitation to show that neuron-restrictive silencer factor interacts with the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) promoter in U87-MG, DMS53 and HeLa cells. The neuron-restrictive silencing element (NRSE1) of the UCHL1 promoter was amplified using GoTaq® Flexi DNA Polymerase in a 25µl PCR. (3705)

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J. Biol. Chem. 282, 35405-35415. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase H1 controls growth hormone receptor signaling and systemic growth. 2007

Pilecka, I., Patrignani, C., Pescini, R., Curchod, M.L., Perrin, D., Xue, Y., Yasenchak, J., Clark, A., Magnone, M.C., Zaratin, P., Valenzuela, D., Rommel, C. and van Huijsduijnen, R.H.

Notes: To genotype PTPH1 knock-out (KO), heterozygous (HET), and wild type (WT) mice, tail snips were digested overnight with proteinase K and the DNA trapped using the Wizard® SV 96 Genomic DNA Purification System. Genomic DNA was washed using the Wizard® SV Wash Solution and eluted in 200μl of water at 65°C. The protease was inactivated at 95°C and 2μl of DNA was used for PCR. (3739)

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Genome Res. 17, 1286-1295. Domain-wide regulation of gene expression in the human genome. 2007

Gierman, H.J., Indemans, M.H., Koster, J., Goetze, S., Seppen, J., Geerts, D., van Driel, R. and Versteeg, R.

Notes: The authors explored the possibility of a domain-based level of gene expression regulation for chromosomes by integrating the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter in 90 different locations in cultured human cells. This integration was accomplished by infecting human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) with a lentiviral construct carrying the GFP gene under the control of the ubiquitously expressed human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), sorting GFP-positive cells by FACS and selecting clones for expansion. Genomic DNA was isolated from the various clones using the Wizard® SV Genomic DNA Purification System and analyzed by PCR or restriction digested for Southern blotting. (3743)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 12796-12800. Metabolic plasticity during mammalian development is directionally dependent on early nutritional status. 2007

Gluckman PD, Lillycrop KA, Vickers MH, Pleasants AB, Phillips ES, Beedle AS, Burdge GC, Hanson MA.

Notes: To examine how exposure to leptin in utero affects hepatic gene expression and epigenetic status in adulthood, pregnant Wistar rats were fed a standard diet or 30% undernutrition. The three-day-old pups were exposed to saline or leptin for 10 days, weaned and either fed a standard or high-fat diet. On day 170, the rats were sacrificed and tissues snap frozen. Five micrograms of genomic DNA was isolated from rat liver using the Wizard® SV Genomic DNA Purification System. Then 25ng of the purified DNA was digested with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) fragments were amplified by real-time PCR. (3744)

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J. Biol. Chem. 282, 8380–8392. RSK2 Mediates Muscle Cell Differentiation through Regulation of NFAT3. 2007

Cho, Y.Y., Yao, K., Bode, A.M., Bergen, H.R. 3rd, Madden, B.J., Oh, S.M., Ermakova, S., Kang, B.S., Choi, H.S., Shim, J.H. and Dong, Z.

Notes: The CheckMate™ Mammalian Two-Hybrid System was used to screen for protein-binding partners for RSK2, a ribosomal S6 kinase involved in myoblast differentiation. The RSK2 cDNA was cloned into the pBIND Vector as bait while several transcription factors were amplified by PCR and cloned into the pACT Vector. The bait pBIND-RSK2 construct, the pACT-transcription factors and pG5-luc Vector were transfected into 293 cells at a 1:1:1 molar ratio. To assess the protein interaction, the cells were lysed, and the firefly luciferase activity was normalized to Renilla luciferase activity. The strongest interaction was with NFAT3. (3574)

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Genetics 176, 161–180. Role of the mod(mdg4) common region in homolog segregation in Drosophila male meiosis. 2007

Soltani-Bejnood, M., Thomas, S.E., Villeneuve, L., Schwarz, K.T., Hong, C.S. and McKee, B.D.

Notes: In this paper, the authors studied the common region of mod(mdg4) and its role in homolog conjunction during meiosis. Genomic DNA was isolated from adult Drosophila using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit and mutations identified by PCR and sequencing of the introns. (3576)

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Anticancer Res. 27, 3843–8. Pamidronate down-regulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. 2007

Iguchi, K. et al.

Notes: In this paper, the authors hypothesized that bisphosphonates, which are used to prevent tumor metastasis, affect expression of urokinasetype plasminogen activator (uPA), which seems to be critical for prostate cancer metastasis. The authors examined the effect of several bisphosphonates on uPA expression in PC-3 cells. Pamidronate treatment resulted in lower uPA mRNA levels. To investigate the cause, the authors created a uPA reporter construct (pGL3-uPA) by cloning the 5′-flanking region of the human uPA gene upstream of a firefly luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3-Basic Vector. PC-3 cells were seeded at a density of 3 × 104 cells/well in 24-well culture plates and transfected with 0.5µg of pGL3-uPA and 1ng of the Renilla luciferase phRL-TK Vector using FuGENE® 6 Transfection Reagent. At 48 hours post-transfection, the authors measured reporter activity using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System to learn that treatment with 100µM pamidronate inhibited transcription of the uPA gene. (4384)

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Clinica Chimica Acta 381, 171-175. Microsatellite mutation in the maternally/paternally transmitted D18S51 locus: two cases of allele mismatch in the child. 2007

Narkuti, V., Vellanki, R.N., Gandhi, K.P., Doddapaneni, K.K., Yelavarthi, P.D. and Mangamoori, L.N.

Notes: The authors describe two cases of paternity dispute, one with a maternally mismatched allele at the D18S51 locus and a second with a paternally mismatched D18S51 allele. Seventeen autosomal STR loci were analyzed using the PowerPlex® 16 System and AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® kit. Amplifications were performed using a GeneAmp® PCR System 9700, and amplification products were detected using an ABI PRISM® 310 Genetic Analyzer. Y-STR loci and mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions HV1 and HV2 were also examined. Sequence analysis of the D18S51 locus revealed an expansion of the maternal allele by one repeat unit in one case and an expansion of the paternal allele by two repeat units in the second case. (3809)

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J. Biol. Chem. 282, 9883–94. Cell confluence-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) triggers epithelial dome formation via augmentation of sodium hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3) expression. 2007

Su, H.W., Yeh, H.H., Wang, S.W., Shen, M.R., Chen, T.L., Kiela, P.R., Ghishan, F.K. and Tang, M.J

Notes: The authors tested their hypothesis that Na+-H+ exchangers (NHE) are involved in the formation of multicullar dome structures in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and that the Stat3 pathway is involved in regulation of NHEs. The authors performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR to monitor NHE3 mRNA levels in MDCK cells expressing a constitutive Stat3 mutant or a dominant-negative Stat3 mutant. The reverse transcription step was performed using Promega M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase. RAlso, Stat3 activities in low-density cultures and high-density cultures were compared using a reporter gene assay. Four copies of the Stat3-binding site were cloned upstream of a firefly luciferase reporter gene, and the resulting vector, along with the pRL-TK Vector for normalization, were transfected into MDCK cells. Luciferase activities were measured using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System. (3910)

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J. Forensic Sci. 52, 870–3. Concordance study between the AmpFlSTR MiniFiler PCR amplification kit and conventional STR typing kits. 2007

Hill, C.R., Kline, M.C., Mulero, J.J., Lagacé, R.E., Chang, C.W., Hennessy, L.K. and Butler, J.M.

Notes: The authors analyzed 1,308 samples for concordance between the Identifiler® kit, AmpFlSTR® Minifiler™ kit and PowerPlex® 16 System. DNA was isolated from liquid blood using the manual DNA IQ™ System protocol, and STR amplifications were performed as per the manufacturer's recommendations except that reaction volumes were decreased by half. Amplified products were analyzed using an Applied Biosystems 3130xl and POP™-4 or POP™-6 polymer. Twenty seven disconcordant phenotypes were identified between the Minifiler™ and Identifiler® kits, 14 between Minifiler™ and PowerPlex® 16 kits, and 4 between PowerPlex® 16 and Identifiler® kits. (3770)

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J. Biol. Chem. 282, 29847–29854. Differential regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) by the p53 family: p73-dependent induction of VDR upon DNA damage. 2007

Kommagani, R., Payal, V. and Kadakia, M.P.

Notes: The authors examined transcriptional regulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by p53 and p63, a member of the p53 family, under stressed and unstressed conditions. Reporter constructs with the full-length and minimal VDR promoters controlling expression of firefly luciferase were cotransfected with p53 or p63 expression constructs, and transcriptional activation of the VDR promoter was monitored using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter 100 Assay System. Results were normalized to Renilla luciferase activity. Interaction between p73, another member of the p53 family, and the VDR promoter was examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation. The imunnopreciptated chromatin was reverse crosslinked, DNA was eluted and VDR and p21 sequences were detected by PCR using GoTaq® Green Master Mix. (3715)

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J. Biomol. Scr. 12, 546–559. Optimization procedure for small interfering RNA transfection in a 384-well format. 2007

Borawski, J., Lindeman, A., Buxton, F., Labow, M. and Gaither, L.A.

Notes: A lentiviral expression vector containing the firefly luciferase gene from a pGL3 Vector was transduced into SKOV3 cells in 384-well plates, transfected with various siRNAs and analyzed 72 hours later. The luciferase expression was determined using the Bright-Glo™ Luciferase Assay System and cell viability assessed using the CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. (3729)

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Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 5, 127–136. Bioluminescent assays for high-throughput screening 2007

Fan, F. and Wood, K.V.

Notes: The authors of this paper review bioluminescent assay technologies, discussing HTS reporter, cell-based and luciferase biosensor assays. They divide luminescent assays into three basic categories: assays that measure ATP concentration (cell viability and kinase assays), assays that measure changes in luciferase levels (reporter assays, GPCR assays), and assays that measure changes in luciferin levels (protease [including caspase], P450 and MAO assays). (3737)

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