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J. Biol. Chem. 283, 16868–75. The hairless phenotype of the Hirosaki hairless rat is due to the deletion of an 80-kb genomic DNA containing five basic keratin genes. 2008

Nanashima, N., Akita, M., Yamada, T., Shimizu, T., Nakano, H., Fan, Y. and Tsuchida, S.

Notes: The mutation responsible for the hairless phenotype was linked to a 80kb deletion of chromosome 7q36. Because many basic keratin genes are located at 7q36, the authors examined keratin gene expression in the Hirosaki hairless rat using RT-PCR. Expression of kb21, kb23 and kb26 was not detected, whereas other basic keratin genes were expressed. RT-PCR was performed using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and 0.5µg of total RNA isolated from rat skin for 21–30 cycles. (3887)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 8914-8919. An epoxide hydrolase involved in the biosynthesis of an insect sex attractant and its use to localize the production site. 2008

Abdel-Latief, M., Garbe, L.A., Koch, M., and Ruther, J.

Notes: These authors amplified and characterized a putative epoxide hydrolase gene from the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. PCR fragments were amplified from genomic DNA, purified from gels using the Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean Up System and then subcloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. The plasmid DNA was purified using the PureYield™ Midiprep System. Linearized plasmids were used for in vitro transcription of RNA for use in RNA interference experiments. (3903)

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J. Clin. Microbiol. 46, 3752–3758. Plastic polymers for efficient DNA microarray hybridization: application to microbiological diagnostics. 2008

Zhao, Z., Peytavi, R., Diaz-Quijada, G.A., Picard, F.J., Huletsky, A., Leblanc, E., Frenette, J., Boivin, G., Veres, T., Dumoulin, M.M. and Bergeron, M.G.

Notes: A plastic support suitable for use in microfluidic systems for highly sensitive DNA microarray hybridizations was developed and tested. Human DNA from Hsap-11 cells was isolated using the MagneSil® KF, Genomic System on a KingFisher ML instrument. Ten nanograms of the isolated DNA was used in RT-PCR. (4021)

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Genetics 178, 1415–29. Comparative genetics of sex determination: masculinizing mutations in Caenorhabditis briggsae. 2008

Kelleher, D.F., de Carvalho, C.E., Doty, A.V., Layton, M., Cheng, A.T., Mathies, L.D., Pilgrim, D. and Haag, E.S.

Notes: The authors characterized masculinizing mutations of the female-promoting tra genes in Caenorhabditis briggsae (Cb-tra). Using RT-PCR, the authors monitored the levels of full-length Cb-tra mRNA and a novel splice variant; actin mRNA was amplified as a control. RT-PCR was carried out using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System and RNA from 5–10 worms per 50µl reaction. (3892)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 1886–91. Use of Drosophila S2 cells as a model for studying Ehrlichia chaffeensis infections. 2008

Luce-Fedrow. A., Von Ohlen, T., Boyle, D., Ganta, R.R. and Chapes, S.K.

Notes: The authors infected Drosophila S2 cells with Ehrlichia chaffeensis to determine if Drosophila is a model system to study E. chaffeensis pathogenesis. E. chaffeensis was also grown in canine macrophage-like DH82 cells, the most common host cell line. Infections were assessed by RT-PCR using the Access RT-PCR System, 0.5–1.0µg of RNA and primers specific to the E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA gene. Housekeeping genes for ribosomal protein 49 and canine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were amplified as control targets for Drosophila and DH82 cells, respectively. Negative controls without reverse transcriptase were performed to be sure that DNA was absent from the RNA samples. (3888)

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J. Cell Sci. 121, 504–13. Integrin alpha9 beta1 is a receptor for nerve growth factor and other neurotrophins. 2008

Staniszewska, I., Sariyer, I.K., Lecht, S., Brown, M.C., Walsh, E.M., Tuszynski, G.P., Safak, M., Lazarovici, P. and Marcinkiewicz, C.

Notes: The authors investigated the ability of α9β1 integrin to act as a neurotrophin receptor and affect cell signaling pathways. As part of the study, RT-PCR was used to detect the presence of other neurotrophin receptors in their model cell line, SW480. Reverse transcription was performed using the Reverse Transcription System and 1µg of total RNA isolated using the SV Total RNA Isolation System. The resulting cDNA (5µg) was amplified for 35 cycles (β-actin as a control) or 40 cycles (TrkA and p75NTR) using GoTaq® Green Master Mix. RT-PCR results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. (3884)

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Endocrinology 149, 2306–12. The gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in deep laminae of mouse spinal cord dorsal horn. 2008

Vergnano, A.M., Ferrini, F., Salio, C., Lossi, L., Baratta, M. and Merighi, A.

Notes: The authors investigated the expression pattern of type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (type 1a GHSR), a receptor for ghrelin. In situ RT-PCR was performed on paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse spinal cord tissue. Prior to in situ RT-PCR, tissue sections were treated with proteinase K and triethanolamine, then dewaxed. Reverse transcription was performed using the Reverse Transcription System and oligo (dT)15 primers; followed by amplification using the PCR Master Mix in the presence of 11-digoxygenin-dUTP (1mM). Amplification products were detected using an anti-digoxygenin, alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat antibody and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-3-indolylphosphate-p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP). (3968)

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Genetics 179, 177-192. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and SUMO-conjugating system of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 2008

Wang, Y., Ladunga, I., Miller, A.R., Horken, K.M., Plucinak, T., Weeks, D.P. and Bailey, C.P.

Notes: These authors used computational biology to screen the genome of the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) homologs. They identified several SUMO and SUMO-like sequences. One of these proteins, crSUMO96, which was recognized by the A. thaliana anti-SUMO antibody, was studied in detail. During their studies, the authors used the PureYield™ RNA Midiprep System to isolate total RNA from C. reinhardtii cells. This RNA was used in real-time RT-RCR assays to detect mRNA transcripts for the various SUMO-like proteins. The Plexor® Two-Step qRT-PCR System was used for the real-time assays. For expression studies, cDNA encoding the various proteins was amplified and subcloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector before transfer into an expression vector. (3875)

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Mol. Cancer Res. 6, 546–54. CXCL16 functions as a novel chemotactic factor for prostate cancer cells in vitro. 2008

Lu, Y., Wang, J., Xu, Y., Koch, A.E., Cai, Z., Chen, X., Galson, D.L., Taichman, R.S. and Zhang, J.

Notes: The authors sought to detect expression of the chemokine CXCL16 and its receptor, CXCR6, in prostate cancer cell lines and in benign and malignant prostate cancer tissues. The Access RT-PCR System was used to amplify and detect CXCL16 and CXCR6 mRNA in these cells and tissues. Each RT-PCR contained 1µg of total RNA, and amplifications were carried out for 35 cycles. Amplified products were detected on a 1.5% ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. (3836)

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J. Biol. Chem. 283, 23514–23. Snail regulates cell-matrix adhesion by regulation of the expression of integrins and basement membrane proteins. 2008

Haraguchi, M., Okubo, T., Miyashita, Y., Miyamoto, Y., Hayashi, M., Crotti, T.N., McHugh, K.P. and Ozawa, M.

Notes: Snail is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin that enhances both cell attachment and cell detachment in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and A4231 cells. To investigate this effect, the authors used Western blot analysis and RT-PCR to monitor protein and mRNA levels of the major adhesive proteins expressed in epithelial cells: laminin, heparin sulfate proteoglycan and collagens. For RT-PCR, total RNA was isolated from transiently transfected snail-expressing MDCK and A431 cells and untransfected cells, then reverse transcribed. The resulting cDNA was amplified by PCR using GoTaq® DNA Polymerase; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was amplified as an internal control. The ability of Snail to regulate the integrin αV promoter was also examined by cloning the promoter and several promoter deletions upstream of a firefly luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3-Basic Vector. Each of these constructs (1µg) and 20ng of pRL-CMV Vector were transfected into MDCK and MDCK/snail cells, and luminescence was measured using the Dual Luciferase Assay System. (3882)

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J. Bacteriol. 190, 1649–1657. Structural and biological characterization of a capsular polysaccharide produced by Staphylococcus haemolyticus. 2008

Flahaut, S., Vinogradov, E., Kelley, K.A., Brennan, S., Hiramatsu, K. and Lee, J.C.

Notes: The authors wanted to purify and characterize the capsular polysaccharide (CP) produced by Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain JCSC1435. S. haemolyticus strains grown in TSB cultures were harvested, lysed with lysozyme and lysostaphin and genomic DNA isolated using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit. The DNA was then used in CP gene PCR. Total RNA was isolated from exponential, postexponential, and stationary phases of S. haemolyticus growth and used in RT-PCR using the Access RT-PCR System. (3977)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2288–97. The genomes of the non-clearing-zone-forming and natural-rubber-degrading species Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Gordonia westfalica harbor genes expressing Lcp activity in Streptomyces strains. 2008

Bröker, D., Dietz, D., Arenskötter, M. and Steinbüchel, A.

Notes: Natural rubber-degrading bacteria fall into two categories: those forming clearing zones on latex overlay plates and those that do not. To investigate this degradation process, the authors amplified latex-clearing protein (lcp) homologs from non-clearing-zone-forming bacteria using degenerate PCR primers based on lcp sequences from clearing-zone forming species. The 3´ region of the lcp gene in G. westfalica was amplified by nested PCR using biotinylated primers, and the amplified products were cloned in the pGEM®-T Easy Vector and sequenced using universal M13 forward and reverse primers. (3907)

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Clin. Can. Res. 14, 5033–42. Midkine enhances soft-tissue sarcoma growth: a possible novel therapeutic target. 2008

Jin, Z., Lahat, G., Korchin, B., Nguyen, T., Zhu, Q.S., Wang, X., Lazar, A.J., Trent, J., Pollock, R.E. and Lev D.

Notes: Increased expression of midkine (MK), a growth factor normally involved in neural development, is associated with several human malignancies. The authors used quantitative RT-PCR to examine mRNA levels for MK and MK receptors in various soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) cell lines. Reverse transcription was performed using 1µg of total RNA, and 2µl of cDNA was used in qPCR using the PCR Master Mix, primers specific to MK and either glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or β-actin primers for normalization, and EvaGreen® dye. To examine the protumorigenic effects of MK, the authors incubated HT1080 and SW684 STS cell lines, which express low levels of MK, with human recombinant MK and measured cell proliferation using the CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. In addition, the authors examined cell proliferation in MK-stably transfected HT1080 cells. The plasmid used for stable transfections was created by reverse transcribing the MK-coding region using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System, then cloning the resulting cDNA into an expression vector. (3895)

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Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 373, 48–52. Selection of mRNA 5´-untranslated region sequence with high translation efficiency through ribosome display. 2008

Mie, M., Shimizu, S., Takahashi, F. and Kobatake, E.

Notes: The authors developed an in vitro selection system that is based on ribosome display and favors identification of 5´-untranslated regions (UTRs) with high translation efficiencies. A 5´-UTR random library was created in which the 5´-UTRs were upstream of a polyhistidine-tag/Renilla luciferase-coding region. In vitro transcripts from this library were translated in vitro using the Flexi® Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate System. The authors preferentially selected mRNAs with high translational efficiencies by shortening the translation time and capturing ternary complexes of mRNA, ribosome and nascent proteins. These complexes were captured using MagneHis™ Ni Particles. RNA was extracted from these complexes and used as a template in RT-PCR for the next round of selection. Before and after each round of selection, 9µl of RNA was translated in vitro, and 20µl of translated product was removed every 5 minutes to measure Renilla luciferase activity and monitor translation efficiency. Renilla luciferase was measured using the Renilla Luciferase Assay System. After two rounds of selection, RT-PCR products were cloned into a pUC18 vector, the sequences of the resulting plasmids were confirmed, and 0.5µg of plasmid was translated in vitro using the TNT® T7 Coupled Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate System to further evaluate translation efficiency. (3963)

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Cancer Res. 68, 5639–5647. A special linker between macrophage and hematopoietic malignant cells: membrane form of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. 2008

Wang, L., Zheng, G.G., Ma, C.H., Lin, Y.M., Zhang, H.Y., Ma, Y.Y., Chong, J.H. and Wu, K.F.

Notes: To examine the role of the membrane form of macrophage colony–stimulating factor(mM-CSF) in the hematopoietic system, RT-PCR was used amplify the cDNA of human mM-CSF from J6-1 cells, a human leukemia cell line. The PCR product was digested and cloned into the pTargeT™ Mammalian Expression Vector. After sequencing to verify the sequence, the construct and empty pTargeT™ Mammalian Expression Vector were purified and used to transfect Namalwa and Ramos cells, human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines, in 24-well plates. The transfected cells were then selected for stable expression of the transfected vector using 1.4 mg/ml G418. Expression of mM-CSF and neomycin (in the empty vector) was confirmed using RT-PCR. These cells were injected into mice and the oncogenicity of the cells determined using antibody staining of tissues. (3989)

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Mol. Med. Reports Atenas 1, 123–129. HPV infection in Brazilian oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and its correlation with clinicopathological outcomes 2008

Oliveira, L.R., Ribeiro-Silva, A., Ramalho, L.N.Z., Simões, A.L. and Zucoloto, S.

Notes: In this study of the frequency of human papilloma virus (HPV) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the MagneSil® Genomic, Fixed Tissue System was used to isolate DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from primary tumors and matched samples. Five microliters of genomic DNA was amplified using PCR Master Mix and primers for both a 110 bp fragment of human ß-globin gene and HPV genotype. After PCR, the product was analyzed on an 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and stained with AgNO3. (3938)

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Cancer Res. 2007, 6146–54. Incorporation of an internal ribosome entry site-dependent mechanism in arsenic-induced GADD45 alpha expression. 2008

Chang, Q,. Bhatia, D., Zhang, Y., Meighan, T., Castranova, V., Shi, X. and Chen, F.

Notes: Trivalent arsenic (As3+) induces expression of growth arrest- and DNA damage-induced gene 45α (GADD45α), which interacts with intracellular signaling molecules involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and immune response. To characterize GADD45α mRNA expression patterns, total RNA was isolated from untreated (growing) and As3+-treated (arrested) BEAS-2B cells, and GADD45α mRNA was amplified using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. GADD45α mRNA levels were undetectable in growing cells but increased in a time-dependent manner in arrested cells. Reverse transcription was carried out at 45°C for 50 minutes, followed by 35 cycles of PCR. (3766)

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J. Biol. Chem. 283, 8218–28. Chymotrypsin B cached in rat liver lysosomes and involved in apoptotic regulation through a mitochondrial pathway. 2008

Miao, Q., Sun, Y., Wei, T., Zhao, X., Zhao, K., Yan, L., Zhang, X., Shu, H. and Yang, F.

Notes: The authors characterized a novel caspase 8-like activity that cleaves Bid and activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This activity was purified from rat liver lysosomal extracts and later identified as chymotrypsin B (CtrB). CtrB was previously thought to be expressed only in the pancreas, but the authors were able to detect crtB RNA in total RNA from primary rat hepatocytes and a rat hepatoma cell line (RH-35) using RT-PCR and the Access RT-PCR System. To confirm the intralysosomal localization of Crt B, the authors transfected RH-35 cells with an expression vector encoding CrtB tagged with green fluorescent protein. Prior to transfection, synthesis of functional protein from the expression vector was confirmed by in vitro transcription and translation using the TNT® Coupled Transcription Translation System and [35S] methionine. (3889)

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J. Bacteriol. 190, 1912–21. Borrelia burgdorferi uniquely regulates its motility genes and has an intricate flagellar hook-basal body structure. 2008

Sal, M.S., Li, C., Motalab, M.A., Shibata, S., Aizawa, S. and Charon, N.W.

Notes: The authors investigated gene transcription within periplasmic flagella of Borrelia burgdorferi, which are composed of a basal body, hook and filament, to determine if hook formation influences flagellin gene expression. They used insertion mutagenesis to construct strains with mutated versions of the hook structural gene flgE that were disrupted by a kanamycin-resistance cassette. The flgE gene and antibiotic-resistance cassette were amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. To assess the effect of flgE disruption on the transcription of filament proteins FlaA and FlaB, quantitative RT-PCR was performed; enolase was used as an internal control. Negative controls without the reverse transcriptase were included for each sample. (3885)

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BMC Genomics 9, 315. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus (Hexapoda: Collembola). 2008

Carapelli, A., Comandi, S., Convey, P., Nardi, F. and Frati, F.

Notes: To sequence the mitochondrial genome one of the most widespread and common collembolan species of Antarctica, springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus. Specimens were collected from Killingbeck I during a 2002 polar expedition and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The Wizard® SV Genomic Purification System was used to extract total DNA from the samples and the complete mitochondrial genome was amplified twice, first with universal primers and sequenced, and then using long PCR with specific primers. The long PCR products were mechanically sheared, blunt end repaired and purified using the Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System. The fragments were then cloned, transformed and sequenced. (3976)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 312-318. Characterization of two new genes, amoR and amoD, in the amo operon of the marine ammonia oxidizer Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC 19707. 2008

El Sheikh, A.F., Poret-Peterson, A.T. and Klotz, M.G.

Notes: These authors investigated the amo operon of the marine ammonia oxidizer Nitrosococcus oceani. The bacteria were grown at 30°C for 3 weeks in 200-400ml batch cultures in artificial seawater in the dark without shaking. Genomic DNA was isolated from cells in stationary phase using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit. The isolated DNA was then used for PCR analysis. (3740)

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Eukaryot. Cell 7, 1965–1979. Transcriptome for photobiological hydrogen production induced by sulfur deprivation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 2008

Nguyen, A.V., Thomas-Hall, S.R., Malnoë, A., Timmins, M., Mussgnug, J.H., Rupprecht, J., Kruse, O., Hankamer, B. and Schenk, P.M.

Notes: The authors analyzed the transcriptional activity of wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures sampled at different time points during the aerobic and anaerobic phase of the photobiological hydrogen production process under sulfur-depleted conditions. C. reinhardtii were grown in photobioreactors, carefully extracted, centrifuged and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. RNA was purified using the SV Total RNA Isolation System following the plant centrifugation protocol without sample grinding. The eluted RNA was quantitated and integrity checked by gel electrophoresis and qRT-PCR. Total RNA was used to synthesize labeled cDNA using the ChipShot™ Indirect Labeling and Clean-Up System. The labeled cDNA was used for probing microarrays. (4022)

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Haematologica 93, 1505–1513. Molecular characterization of three novel splicing mutations causing factor V deficiency and analysis of the F5 gene splicing pattern. 2008

Dall'Osso, C., Guella, I., Duga, S., Locatelli, N., Paraboschi, E.M., Spreafico, M., Afrasiabi, A., Pechlaner, C., Peyvandi, F., Tenchini, M.L. and Asselta, R.

Notes: To examine the causes of Factor V (FV) deficiency, the authors examined transcript splicing and its mutated variations. Three regions of human FV (F5) were amplified from a healthy individual and the PCR products cloned into the pTargeT™ Mammalian Expression Vector. Three identified mutations from people with FV deficiency were introduced by site-directed mutatgenesis. All constructs were sequenced before transfection into HeLa cells. After 48 hours, the total RNA was purified and the splicing pattern of the wild type and mutant constructs were analyzed by RT-PCR. The mutant constructs were also transfected into HepG2 cells and tested for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) with or without NMD inhibitors (puromycin, cycloheximide, and wortmannin) using RT-PCR. (3992)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 4234-4242. Rapid engineering of bacterial reporter gene fusions by using Red recombination. 2008

Gerlach, R.G., Hölzer, S.U., Jäckel, D., and Hensel, M.

Notes: These authors describe use of a red recombinase mediated method for generation of reporter constructs in Salmonella enterica setrovar typhimurium. Among the reporter constructs created was a HaloTag® reporter using the HaloTag® coding region from the pHT2 promoter. (3924)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 36, 5391–404. miR-16 family induces cell cycle arrest by regulating multiple cell cycle genes. 2008

Liu, Q., Fu, H., Sun, F., Zhang, H., Tie, Y., Zhu, J., Xing, R., Sun, Z. and Zheng, X.

Notes: To identify microRNA targets, the authors created a Drosha-knockdown cell line and confirmed depletion of Drosha and three randomly selected miRNAs in these cells by quantitative RT-PCR, using β-actin as a control. The reverse transcription step was performed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. The authors then performed microarray analysis to monitor expression of transcripts to determine which were upregulated as a result of Drosha depletion; cRNA used in these microarray experiments was synthesized using the T7 RiboMAX™ Express Large Scale RNA Production System. Cyclin D1 was identified as a potential miRNA target. To screen miRNAs that regulate cyclin D1, the authors cloned the cyclin D1 3´ untranslated region downstream of the firefly luciferase gene of the pGL3-Control Vector and measured luciferase levels in transfected cells using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Renilla luciferase in the pRL-TK Vector was used as a normalization control. (3894)

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