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PLos ONE 7, e47892. Epigenetic disruption of the PIWI pathway in human spermatogenic disorders. 2012

Heyn, H., Ferreira, H.J., Bassas, L., Bonache, S., Sayols, S., Sandoval, J., Esteller, M. and Larriba, S.

Notes: The authors used microarray analysis, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing to examine a possible link between aberrant DNA methylation and abnormal human spermatogenesis and male infertility. They identified almost 600 genes that were differentially methylated in testis tissue of men with secretory male infertility. Genomic DNA used in the microarray analysis was extracted from testicular biopsies using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit. For the bisulfite sequencing experiments, genomic DNA was bisulfite-modified, amplified, cloned using the pGEM®-T Easy Vector System, then sequenced. (4257)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78, 445–54. Responses of methanogen mcrA genes and their transcripts to an alternate dry/wet cycle of paddy field soil. 2012

Ma, K., Conrad, R. and Lu, Y.

Notes: The authors of this study investigated the microbial mechanisms associated with the reduction of methane production and emission from rice fields observed with intermittent field drainage. They looked in particular at the abundance of mcrA gene copies and transcripts from rice paddy soil fauna. The mcrA gene encodes the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase. 

Total nucleic acid was extracted from soil samples using a phenol-chloroform procedure. For RNA analyses, DNA was hydrolyzed using RQ1 RNase-free DNase in the presence of 0.2µl Recombinant RNasin® Ribonuclease Inhibitor and then further purified using a commercial kit. cDNA synthesis was carried out using the Improm-II™ Reverse Transcription System, again in the presence of 1.0µl Recombinant RNasin® Ribonuclease Inhibitor. A clone library of transcripts was generated using the pGEM®-T Easy Vector System. The transcript standard for quantitative mcrA analysis was prepared from the in vitro transcript of a mcrA clone using the Riboprobe® in vitro Transcription Systems. (4241)

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J. Virol. 86, 10999–11012. Virome analysis for identification of novel mammalian viruses in bat species from Chinese provinces. 2012

Wu, Z., Ren, X., Yang, L., Hu, Y., Yang, J., He, G., Zhang, J., Dong, J., Sun, L., Du, J., Liu, L., Xue, Y., Wang, J., Yang, F., Zhang, S. and Jin, Q.

Notes: Swab samples from 11 species of Chinese bats were vortexed in maintenance medium, filtered through a 0.45µm pore filter, centrifuged and resuspended. Any nonencapsidated (naked) nucleic acid was digested in a cocktail of enzymes including 20U of RNase ONE™ Ribonuclease prior to DNA and RNA purification. Conserved regions of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of astroviruses were reverse transcribed, amplified and cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector for sequencing. (4552)

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J. Biol. Chem. 286, 37196–206. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine activates iron uptake and heme biosynthesis by increasing c-myc nuclear localization and binding to the e-boxes of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferrochelatase (Fech) genes. 2011

Ning, B., Liu., G., Liu, Y., Su, X., Anderson, G.J., Zheng, X., Chang, Y., Guo, M., Liu, Y., Zhao, Y. and Nie, G.

Notes: The authors used GoTaq® DNA Polymerase to amplify cDNA generated from total RNA (RT-PCR) extracted from murine erythroid leukemia (MEL) cells and mouse erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-Es). These cells were used to study the molecular mechanism of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR)-induced erythroid differentiation, a process involved in azanucleotides for treating myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) that reduces the risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Treatment of these cells with 5-aza-CdR, a hypomethylation reagent, upregulated genes responsible for heme production and iron uptake. The pGL3 basic vector and promoter were used to create plasmid constructs of different E-box regulatory sequences with a luciferase reporter. The plasmids were cotransfected with c-Myc, Max or both transcription factors into human hepatocytes (HepG2). The Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System was used to identify that the –6kb E-box of the transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) promoter was a strong enhancer for inducing TfR1 expression when c-Myc and Max formed functional complexes that bound to it. Bisulfite sequencing was performed to study methylation patterns after 5-aza-2’-CdR treatment using the pGEM-T® Easy Vector system to ligate the isolated DNA fragments for TfR1 and Fech (ferrochetalase), which were transformed into E coli. for final sequencing. (4176)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77, 2113–21. General suppression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sand-based dairy livestock bedding. 2011

Westphal, A., Williams, M.L., Baysal-Gurel, F., LeJeune, J.T. and McSpadden Gardener, B.B.

Notes: The authors investigated the suppression of E. coli O157:H7 in sand-based livestock bedding and hypothesized that suppression of E. coli O157:H7 growth was mediated by an environmentally stable population of pathogen-suppressing bacteria. These bacteria were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences isolated from used bedding followed by cloning and sequencing of the most abundant terminal restriction fragments. Amplifications were performed using the GoTaq® Flexi DNA Polymerase, then PCR products were cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. The PureYield™ Plasmid Miniprep System was used to purify plasmids for sequencing. (4165)

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Nucl. Acids Res. Dec 8, Epub ahead of print. Protein-mediated protection as the predominant mechanism for defining processed mRNA termini in land plant chloroplasts. 2011

Zhelyazkhova, P., Hammani, K., Rojas, M., Voelker, R., Vargas-Suárez, M., Börner, T., and Barkan, A.

Notes: Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are helical repeat proteins that bind specific RNA segments and protect the adjacent RNA by serving as a barrier to exoribonucleases. This study showed that protection by PPR or PPR-like proteins is the predominant mechanism for defining the positions of processed 5′ and intercistronic mRNA termini in land plant chloroplasts. The authors used RNasin® Ribonuclease Inhibitor in binding reactions between labeled RNA and PPR proteins prior to Gel mobility shift assays. They also used the pGEM®-T Vector to clone various 3´ RNA terminal sequences amplified by RT-PCR. (4185)

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J. Biol. Chem. 286, 19478–19488. Thrombomodulin is silenced in malignant mesothelioma by a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated epigenetic mechanism. 2011

Nocchi, L., Tomasetti, M., Amati, M., Neuzil, J., Santarelli, L. and Saccucci, F.

Notes: Thrombomodulin (TM) expression was examined by isolating genomic DNA from biopsies of human malignant mesothelioma and normal mesothelial tissue, and cultured cell lines with or without PARP1 silencing treated with 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine and trichostatin alone or in combination and then subjected to biosulfide modification. To analyze methylation of TM, a CpG island in the promoter, 5´ UTR and an exon region containing 44 CpG dinucleotides were PCR amplified, cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector, transformed and positive clones selected using IPTG/X-Gal and analyzed by PCR. Colonies were cultured, the plasmids isolated using the Wizard® Plus SV Minipreps DNA Purification System then 10 clones
from each sample type were sequenced. (4132)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75, 2275–83. Characterization of regulatory pathways in Xylella fastidiosa: genes and phenotypes controlled by gacA. 2009

Shi, X.Y., Dumenyo, C.K., Hernandez-Martinez, R., Azad, H. and Cooksey, D.A.

Notes: To gain a better understanding of how Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases in grapes, the authors mutated conserved regulatory genes, including gacA, that affect expression of virulence-related factors in other species. The relative expression levels of gacA in wildtype and mutated strains were examined using RT-PCR. The authors also identified and quantified a number of genes that were regulated by GacA by microarray analysis. Microarray results were confirmed using RT-PCR. RT-PCR was performed using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. (4052)

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J. Biol. Chem. 284, 29526–35. Escherichia coli unsaturated fatty acid synthesis: complex transcription of the fabA gene and in vivo identification of the essential reaction catalyzed by FabB. 2009

Feng, Y. and Cronan, J.E.

Notes: The authors examined the role of two promoters in the regulation of fabA, an enzyme involved in unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. fabA transcript levels were quantified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase, followed by a SYBR® Green method. (4053)

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Drug Metab. Dispos. 37, 1759–1768. Quantitative analysis of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A and UGT2B expression levels in human livers. 2009

Izukawa, T., Nakajima, M., Fujiwara, R., Yamanaka, H., Fukami, T., Takamiya, M., Aoki, Y., Ikushiro, S., Sakaki, T. and Yokoi, T.

Notes: This study examined the expression levels of each UGT isoform in human liver and evaluated the variability between individuals. Total RNA from appropriate human tissues or various cell lines was used for RT-PCR of various human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) cDNAs. The amplimers were cloned into the pTARGET™ Mammalian Expression Vector and verified by sequencing. The UGT vectors were linearized by restriction enzyme digestion and used for standards in real-time RT-PCR analysis. (4034)

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Plant Physiol. 150, 1356–1367. Sucrose control of translation mediated by an upstream open reading frame-encoded peptide. 2009

Rahmani, F., Hummel, M., Schuurmans, J., Wiese-Klinkenberg, A., Smeekens, S. and Hanson, J.

Notes: The authors were wanted to study the upstream open reading frame 2 (uORF2) of the 5’ leader of bZIP11 mRNA, which has a role in sucrose regulation. The whole 5’ leader fragment of bZIP11 was subcloned into the pALTER® Vector and amino acid substitutions were introduced using the Altered Sites® II in vitro Mutagenesis System. The pGEM®-T Easy Vector was used to clone two PCR fragments that were then subcloned using restriction enzymes to create a fusion of uORF2 to a different 5’ leader. Arabidopsis seedlings were transformed via particle bombardment. 20mg of plant tissue was ground in Passive Lysis Buffer, centrifuged, and 20µl of the supernatant was assessed for reporter gene expression using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (4023)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 2441–2446. Systems-level analysis of cell-specific AQP2 gene expression in renal collecting duct. 2009

Yu, M.J., Miller, R.L., Uawithya, P., Rinschen, M.M., Khositseth, S., Braucht, D.W., Chou, C.L., Pisitkun, T., Nelson, R.D. and Knepper, M.A.

Notes: The authors used a systems biology approach to examine the transcriptional regulation of water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). A 1,511bp fragment from the 5´-flanking region of the mouse AQP2 gene was amplified from mouse tail DNA and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. This construct was then digested with two restriction enzymes and cloned into a double-digested pGL3-Basic Vector. Full length Elf3, Elf5 and Ehf cDNA, members of the ETS family of transcriptional regulators, were amplified, sequenced and ligated into the pTARGET™ Mammalian Expression Vector. LLCPK1 cells were cotransfected with AQP2-pGL3 reporter and one of the pTARGET™ constructs. Reporter activity was measured using 20µl of cell lysate in a luciferase assay. (4033)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 8914-8919. An epoxide hydrolase involved in the biosynthesis of an insect sex attractant and its use to localize the production site. 2008

Abdel-Latief, M., Garbe, L.A., Koch, M., and Ruther, J.

Notes: These authors amplified and characterized a putative epoxide hydrolase gene from the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. PCR fragments were amplified from genomic DNA, purified from gels using the Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean Up System and then subcloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. The plasmid DNA was purified using the PureYield™ Midiprep System. Linearized plasmids were used for in vitro transcription of RNA for use in RNA interference experiments. (3903)

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J. Bacteriol. 190, 1912–21. Borrelia burgdorferi uniquely regulates its motility genes and has an intricate flagellar hook-basal body structure. 2008

Sal, M.S., Li, C., Motalab, M.A., Shibata, S., Aizawa, S. and Charon, N.W.

Notes: The authors investigated gene transcription within periplasmic flagella of Borrelia burgdorferi, which are composed of a basal body, hook and filament, to determine if hook formation influences flagellin gene expression. They used insertion mutagenesis to construct strains with mutated versions of the hook structural gene flgE that were disrupted by a kanamycin-resistance cassette. The flgE gene and antibiotic-resistance cassette were amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. To assess the effect of flgE disruption on the transcription of filament proteins FlaA and FlaB, quantitative RT-PCR was performed; enolase was used as an internal control. Negative controls without the reverse transcriptase were included for each sample. (3885)

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Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1812–9. Enhanced resistance to bacterial infection in protegrin-1 transgenic mice. 2008

Cheung, Q.C., Turner, P.V., Song, C., Wu, D., Cai, H.Y., MacInnes, J.I. and Li, J.

Notes: One potential source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is food-producing animals. The authors examined the ability of protegrin-1 (PG-1), an antimicrobial peptide, to protect wildtype and transgenic mice expressing PG-1 against bacterial infection. As part of the cloning strategy to produce the PG-1 expression construct, the authors amplified and cloned full-length PG-1 into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. To test the bactericidal activity of PG-1 expressed in transgenic mice, radial diffusion assays were performed, in which test samples were added to a well containing E. coli and the clear antibacterial zone was measured. Two of the test samples were neutrophil secretions from the PG-1 transgenic mice and purified polyhistidine-tagged PG-1 protein, purified using the MagneHis™ Protein Purification System. (3896)

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Microbiology 154, 139–47. Involvement of BmoR and BmoG in n-alkane metabolism in 'Pseudomonas butanovora'. 2008

Kurth, E.G., Doughty, D.M., Bottomley, P.J., Arp, D.J. and Sayavedra-Soto, L.A.

Notes: The authors characterized five open-reading frames flanking the alcohol-inducible alkane monooxygenase (BMO) structural gene of Pseudomonas butanovora. Strains with mutated bmoR, which encodes a putative transcriptional regulator, or bmoG, which encodes a putative chaperonin, were created by gene inactivation. The bmoR gene was amplified and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector for disruption with a kanamycin cassette. The two termini of the bmoG gene were amplified separately, ligated to the kanamycin cassette and cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. Plasmids encoding the disrupted genes were transformed into Pseudomonas butanovora by electroporation. (3893)

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Haematologica 93, 1505–1513. Molecular characterization of three novel splicing mutations causing factor V deficiency and analysis of the F5 gene splicing pattern. 2008

Dall'Osso, C., Guella, I., Duga, S., Locatelli, N., Paraboschi, E.M., Spreafico, M., Afrasiabi, A., Pechlaner, C., Peyvandi, F., Tenchini, M.L. and Asselta, R.

Notes: To examine the causes of Factor V (FV) deficiency, the authors examined transcript splicing and its mutated variations. Three regions of human FV (F5) were amplified from a healthy individual and the PCR products cloned into the pTargeT™ Mammalian Expression Vector. Three identified mutations from people with FV deficiency were introduced by site-directed mutatgenesis. All constructs were sequenced before transfection into HeLa cells. After 48 hours, the total RNA was purified and the splicing pattern of the wild type and mutant constructs were analyzed by RT-PCR. The mutant constructs were also transfected into HepG2 cells and tested for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) with or without NMD inhibitors (puromycin, cycloheximide, and wortmannin) using RT-PCR. (3992)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 36, 2107–2722. PDZ domain-mediated dimerization and homeodomain-directed specificity are required for high-affinity DNA binding by SATB1. 2008

Purbey, P.K., Singh, S., Kumar, P.P., Mehta, S., Ganesh, K.N., Mitra, D. and Galande, S.

Notes: To learn about the ideal target binding sequence for SATB1, the T-lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and transcription factor, random oligonucleotides underwent SELEX and five rounds of selection by EMSA. The enriched library of oligos was cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector, transformed and sequenced. Several variants of SATB1-binding consensus sequences were annealed, ligated into the pGL3-Promoter Vector and cotransfected into HEK 293 cells with a plasmid that either contained SATB1 or was empty. After 48 hours, the cells were harvested and luciferase activity measured. The CheckMate™ Mammalian Two-Hybrid System was used to assess how the N-terminal PDZ domain of SATB1 interacted with the Cut and homeodomain in the C-terminus. (3982)

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J. Virol. 12, 5940–50. Sulfatide is required for efficient replication of influenza A virus. 2008

Takahashi, T., Murakami, K., Nagakura, M., Kishita, H., Watanabe, S., Honke, K., Ogura, K., Tai, T., Kawasaki, K., Miyamoto, D., Hidari, K.I., Guo, C.T., Suzuki, Y. and Suzuki, T.

Notes: Sulfatide is present in mammalian organs where influenza A replicates. Ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGT) and cerebroside (galactosylceramide) sulfotransferase (CST), which synthesize sulfatide, were cloned by PCR into the pTargeT™ Mammalian Expression Vector and the pGEM®-T Easy Vector, (CST with or without a three base insertion), respectively. The two genes were removed by restriction digestion and cloned into pIRES-neo to forma bicistronic construct. Arylsulfatase A (ASA), which degrades sulfatide was also amplified and cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector, before being subcloned into a neomycin-resistant expression vector. The expression vectors were transfected into COS-7 cells and selected for stable expression using G418. (3990)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2288–97. The genomes of the non-clearing-zone-forming and natural-rubber-degrading species Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Gordonia westfalica harbor genes expressing Lcp activity in Streptomyces strains. 2008

Bröker, D., Dietz, D., Arenskötter, M. and Steinbüchel, A.

Notes: Natural rubber-degrading bacteria fall into two categories: those forming clearing zones on latex overlay plates and those that do not. To investigate this degradation process, the authors amplified latex-clearing protein (lcp) homologs from non-clearing-zone-forming bacteria using degenerate PCR primers based on lcp sequences from clearing-zone forming species. The 3´ region of the lcp gene in G. westfalica was amplified by nested PCR using biotinylated primers, and the amplified products were cloned in the pGEM®-T Easy Vector and sequenced using universal M13 forward and reverse primers. (3907)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 10637–10642. Commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli use a common pilus adherence factor for epithelial cell colonization. 2007

Rendón, M.A., Saldaña, Z., Erdem, A.L., Monteiro-Neto, V., Vázquez, A., Kaper, J.B., Puente, J.L. and Girón, J.A.

Notes: The authors identified an adherence factor of enterohemorrhagic E. coli that is involved in colonization of cultured epithelial cells. This factor, named E. coli common pilus (ECP), is encoded by the ecpA gene, which is present 96% of E. coli strains tested, as determined by PCR. The remaining 4% of the strains were found to be deficient in the ECP operon, as determined by multiplex PCR amplification of ecpR, ecpA, epcB and ecpC sequences. PCR were performed using GoTaq® Green Master Mix. An ecpA deletion mutant exhibited impaired adherence compared to the wildtype E. coli strain. Complementation of the mutant strain with the plasmid pMR13, the pGEM®-T Vector containing the ecpA gene, restored the strain's ability to adhere to epithelial cells. (3719)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 35, 1245-1256. Dual role of DNA methylation inside and outside of CTCF-binding regions in the transcriptional regulation of the telomerase hTERT gene 2007

Renaud, S., Loukinov, D., Abdullaev, Z., Guilleret, I., Bosman, F.T., Lobanenkov, V. and Benhattar, J.

Notes: Telomeres shorten by 50–100 bases with each cell division, making the telomere a "mitotic counter" that can limit cellular lifespan. Telomerase is a two-component protein consisting of a reverse transcriptase (hTERT) bound to its own RNA template that can act to maintain telomere length in dividing cells. Telomerase is highly active in dividing cells such as germ cells, stem cells and many cancers. This paper investigated the role of methylation of the hTERT promoter and the transcription factor CTCF in regulation of telomerase activity. LacZ reporter plasmids driven by the hTERT minimal promoter were transiently transfected into HeLa cells, and reporter assays were performed on lysate generated using Passive Lysis Buffer. The hTERT minimal promoter did not show activity if all of the CpG sites were methylated. The promoter and first exon of hTERT were amplified using PCR Master Mix from sodium bisulfite-treated genomic DNA isolated from telomerase-positive cell lines and tissues. The resulting fragments were cloned using the pGEM®-T Vector System II. For the methylation cassette assay, methylated and unmethylated fragments were cloned into a methylated or unmethylated vector using the LigaFast™ Rapid DNA Ligation System. The authors conclude that methylation plays a dual role in regulating hTERT expression. CTCF will bind to the first exon of hTERT when the hTERT CpG island is not methylated, resulting in downregulation of hTERT expression. Although CTCF cannot bind the hTERT promoter when the DNA is completely methylated, the methylation itself completely represses transcription. In situations where there is partial methylation of the promoter, such as in tumor cells, CTCF cannot bind to the promoter, but the partial methylation is not enough to repress transcription, and hTERT is expressed. (3641)

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Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 264, 50-60. Novel estrogen receptor beta transcript variants identified in human breast cancer cells affect cell growth and apoptosis of COS-1 cells. 2007

Treeck, O., Pfeiler ,G., Horn, F., Federhofer, B., Houlihan, H., Vollmer, A., and Ortmann, O.

Notes: This study identified two novel transcript variants of the estrogen receptor ERβ that were expressed in the ERα-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MD-231. These variants were identified after amplification of ERβ transcripts from the breast cancer cell line by RT-PCR. The amplification products were then excised from gels and subcloned into the pTARGET™ Mammalian Expression Vector prior to sequencing. COS1 cells, which do not express the estrogen receptor, were then stably transfected with full-length ERβ or one of the splice variants and the effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and estrogen response were evaluated. In COS1 cells expressing either ERβ or the transcript variants cell proliferation decreased and basal apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity) increased, compared to cells transfected with vector alone. Exposure to therapeutic doses of tamoxifen induced apoptosis in cells expressing the full-length ERβ but not in cells expressing either of the variant isoforms. (3618)

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Hum. Mol. Genet. 15, 999–1013. An exon skipping-associated nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene uncovers a complex interplay between multiple antagonistic splicing elements. 2006

Disset, A., Bourgeois, C.F., Benmalek, N., Claustres, M., Stevenin, J. and Tuffery-Giraud, S.

Notes: To construct dystrophin minigenes, genomic DNA containing a mutation in dystrophin was amplified for exons 30, 31 and 32. The three PCR fragments were combined and amplified into one product. This overlap-extension PCR generated two minigenes which were then cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector and sequenced. After EcoR I digestion, the minigenes were ligated into the pSI Mammalian Expression Vector and transiently transfected into C2C12 cells for expression analysis. (3499)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 6070-6078. An oxidoreductase is involved in cercosporin degradation by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae. 2006

Taylor, T.V., Mitchell, T.K. and Daub, M.E.

Notes: Fungi of the genus Cercospora are plant pathogens that cause leaf spot and blight diseases, and produce the polyketide toxin cercosporin. The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is able to rapidly degrade cercosporin. In this study, X. campestris mutants unable to degrade cercosporin were created by chemical mutagenesis. Complementation studies with a plasmid-based library of X. campestris DNA showed that the ability to degrade cercosporin was restored upon transformation with plasmids containing an oxidoreductase gene and a putative transcriptional regulator. These genes were then amplified from the mutant strains by high-fidelity PCR. The PCR products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, purified using the Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System, and subcloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. The mutant genes were then sequenced to identify the nature of the mutations. (3531)

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