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Neurobiol. Dis. 85, 35-48. Knock-down of pantothenate kinase 2 severely affects the development of the nervous and vascular system in zebrafish, providing new insights into PKAN disease. 2016

Zizioli, D., Tiso, N., Guglielmi, A., Saraceno, C., Busolin, G., Giuliani, R., Khatri, D., Monti, E., Borsani, G., Argenton, F. and Finazzi, D.

Notes: To express the pank2 gene product, expression vectors were transfected into COS7, HeLa and SH-SY5Y cells using ViaFect™ Transfection Reagent (105 cells per chamber of glass slides; 1µg expression vector DNA: 3µl ViaFect™ Reagent). The cDNA clones used in this study were amplified by RT-PCR using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase for cDNA synthesis and Pfu DNA Polymerase for PCR. PCR products were cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. (4663)

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J. Biol. Chem. 284, 29526–35. Escherichia coli unsaturated fatty acid synthesis: complex transcription of the fabA gene and in vivo identification of the essential reaction catalyzed by FabB. 2009

Feng, Y. and Cronan, J.E.

Notes: The authors examined the role of two promoters in the regulation of fabA, an enzyme involved in unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. fabA transcript levels were quantified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase, followed by a SYBR® Green method. (4053)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 36, 5391–404. miR-16 family induces cell cycle arrest by regulating multiple cell cycle genes. 2008

Liu, Q., Fu, H., Sun, F., Zhang, H., Tie, Y., Zhu, J., Xing, R., Sun, Z. and Zheng, X.

Notes: To identify microRNA targets, the authors created a Drosha-knockdown cell line and confirmed depletion of Drosha and three randomly selected miRNAs in these cells by quantitative RT-PCR, using β-actin as a control. The reverse transcription step was performed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. The authors then performed microarray analysis to monitor expression of transcripts to determine which were upregulated as a result of Drosha depletion; cRNA used in these microarray experiments was synthesized using the T7 RiboMAX™ Express Large Scale RNA Production System. Cyclin D1 was identified as a potential miRNA target. To screen miRNAs that regulate cyclin D1, the authors cloned the cyclin D1 3´ untranslated region downstream of the firefly luciferase gene of the pGL3-Control Vector and measured luciferase levels in transfected cells using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Renilla luciferase in the pRL-TK Vector was used as a normalization control. (3894)

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Development 134, 2889–2894. A discrete period of FGF-induced Erk1/2 signalling is required for vertebrate neural specification. 2007

Stavridis, M.P., Lunn, J.S., Collins, B.J. and Storey, K.G.

Notes: The authors studied the role of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway during neural specification in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Undifferentiated ES cells express high levels of the pluripotent marker Nanog but do not express fibroblast growth factor (Fgf5), an early marker of differentiation of ES cells, or Sox1, an early neural transcription factor gene. Using quantitative PCR, levels of Nanog, Fgf5 and Sox1 mRNA were quantitated during ES differentiation in the presence and absence of a MEK inhibitor. Prior to quantitative PCR, 1µg of total RNA was reverse transcribed using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase. By measuring these mRNA levels, the authors determined that inhibition of the Erk1/2 pathway blocked ES differentiation. (3726)

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J. Immunol. 178, 771–777. Klotho—a Common Link in Physiological and Rheumatoid Arthritis-Related Aging of Human CD4 Lymphocytes 2007

Witkowski, J.M., Soroczynska-Cybula, M., Bryl, E., Smolenska, Z., and Jozwik, A.

Notes: Klotho knockout mice exhibit a phenotype of precocious aging, organ failure, osteoporosis. Humans with specific Klotho alleles are at increased risk for osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and decreased lifespan. The authors of this study looked at the expression of Klotho in CD4+ lymphocytes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and age-matched healthy individuals. cDNA was prepared from total RNA isolated from purified CD4+ lymphocytes using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. Klotho expression, protein level and activity was decreased in the lymphocytes from the RA patients. (3654)

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Brain Res. 1127, 66–75. Molecular characterization and gene expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the lizard brain. 2007

Valiante, S., Prisco, M., Capaldo, A., Zambrano, I., De Falco, M., Andreuccetti, P., Laforgia, V., and Varano, L.

Notes: The authors cloned pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) from lizard (Podarcis sicula) brain. They then isolated total RNA from lizard brain using the SV Total RNA Isolation System and used 4µg of total RNA in a reverse transcription with ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase and oligo(dT)15 primers at 37°C for 1.5 hours. The PACAP cDNA was amplified by PCR, and the resulting PCR products were cleaned up using the Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System prior to sequencing. (3666)

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Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 264, 50-60. Novel estrogen receptor beta transcript variants identified in human breast cancer cells affect cell growth and apoptosis of COS-1 cells. 2007

Treeck, O., Pfeiler ,G., Horn, F., Federhofer, B., Houlihan, H., Vollmer, A., and Ortmann, O.

Notes: This study identified two novel transcript variants of the estrogen receptor ERβ that were expressed in the ERα-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MD-231. These variants were identified after amplification of ERβ transcripts from the breast cancer cell line by RT-PCR. The amplification products were then excised from gels and subcloned into the pTARGET™ Mammalian Expression Vector prior to sequencing. COS1 cells, which do not express the estrogen receptor, were then stably transfected with full-length ERβ or one of the splice variants and the effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and estrogen response were evaluated. In COS1 cells expressing either ERβ or the transcript variants cell proliferation decreased and basal apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity) increased, compared to cells transfected with vector alone. Exposure to therapeutic doses of tamoxifen induced apoptosis in cells expressing the full-length ERβ but not in cells expressing either of the variant isoforms. (3618)

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Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 292, E246-E252. Tumor suppressor BRCA1 inhibits a breast cancer-associated promoter of the aromatase gene (CYP19) in human adipose stromal cells. 2007

Ghosh, S., Lu, Y., Katz, A., Hu, Y., and Li, R.

Notes: Obesity-associated elevated estrogen increases the risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The rate limiting step in the synthesis of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by the aromatase enzyme. Normally this enzyme is expressed under a weak promoter in adipose tissue; however in breast cancer a second, strong ovary-specific promoter (PII) drives expression of aromatase. This study investigated the relationship of BRCA1 and aromatase expression. RNA isolated from BRCA-1 siRNA-treated adipose stromal cells was reverse transcribed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. The authors show that siRNA knockdown of BRCA1 resulted in activation of the PII promoter, suggesting that BRCA1 can modulate estrogen biosynthesis in adipose tissue. (3606)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 814-819. Cytokinin-mediated control of leaf longevity by AHK3 through phosphorylation of ARR2 in Arabidopsis. 2006

Kim, H.J., Ryu, H., Hong, S.H., Woo, H.R., Lim, P.O., Lee, I.C., Sheen, J., Nam, H.G. and Hwang, I.

Notes: The authors characterize an Arabidopsis cytokinin-receptor mutant. RNA was isolated from leaf tissue from wildtype and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing various components of the cytokinin signaling pathway. The RNA was reverse transcribed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System, and real-time PCR was performed to quantitate response regulator proteins in the signaling pathway. (3450)

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J. Immunol. 176, 27-35. Hydrolytic and nonenzymatic functions of acetylcholinesterase comodulate hemopoietic stress responses. 2006

Grisaru, D., Pick, M., Perry, C., Sklan, E.H., Almog, R., Goldberg, I., Naparstek, E., Lessing, J.B., Soreq, H. and Deutsch, V.

Notes: Expression levels of transcription factors critical for hemopoiesis in bone marrow were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. First, total RNA was isolated from mouse bone marrow, treated with DNase I, then reverse transcribed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. Each reaction included 2.4µl of 25mM MgCl2, 4µl of 5X buffer, 1µl of reverse transcriptase, 1µl of dNTP mix (10mM each), 1µl of 50µM random hexamers, 0.5µl of RNasin® Ribonuclease Inhibitor (20U), and 2µl of sample RNA (200ng/µl). (3454)

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FEBS Lett. 580, 755-762. Interferon regulatory factor-1 is prerequisite to the constitutive expression and IFN-gamma-induced upregulation of B7-H1 (CD274). 2006

Lee, S.J., Jang, B.C., Lee, S.W., Yang, Y.I., Suh, S.I., Park, Y.M., Oh, S., Shin, J.G., Yao, S., Chen, L. and Choi, I.H.

Notes: Many cancer cells upregulate the co-signaling molecule B7-H1, confering resistance to anti-tumor immunity. The ability of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) to upregulate B7-H1 expression was characterized by cloning fragments of the B7-H1 promoter upstream of the firefly luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3-Basic Vector and monitoring luciferase expression using the Dual Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. Firefly luciferase measurements were normalized using Renilla luciferase (pRL-CMV Vector). Putative IRF-1 binding sites in the B7-H1 promoter were identified using the Gel Shift Assay System. RT-PCR was used to examine B7-H1 mRNA levels in interferon-γ-treated or untreated A549 cells exposed to various concentrations of IRF-1 siRNA. cDNA synthesis was performed with the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. (3451)

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J. Biol. Chem. 281, 13199-13208. Molecular pharmacological phenotyping of EBI2. An orphan seven-transmembrane receptor with constitutive activity. 2006

Rosenkilde, M.M., Benned-Jensen, T., Andersen, H., Holst, P.J., Kledal, T.N., Luttichau, H.R., Larsen, J.K., Christensen, J.P. and Schwartz, T.W.

Notes: The expression level of the seven-transmembrane Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Total RNA was isolated from T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, monocytes and NK cells, and reverse transcribed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. The resulting cDNA was quantitated using real-time PCR. (3449)

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Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 110, 279-92. Perforin expression can define CD8 positive lymphocyte subsets in pigs allowing phenotypic and functional analysis of natural killer, cytotoxic T, natural killer T and MHC un-restricted cytotoxic T-cells. 2006

Denyer, M.S., Wileman, T.E., Stirling, C.M.A., Zuber, B., and Takamatsu, H.

Notes: In this study, GoTaq® DNA Polymerase was used in two-step RT-PCR. The ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System was first used to produce cDNA using an oligo d(T)15 primer. PCR was then performed using GoTaq® DNA Polymerase. Each reaction contained 2μl cDNA, 10μl GoTaq® Reaction Buffer, 1μl dNTP (10mM), 0.2μl GoTaq® DNA Polymerase, 1μl each primer (10pmol) and 34.8μl nuclease-free water. PCR was performed at 94°C for 30 seconds, 55°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 60 seconds for 35 cycles, and 72°C for 10 minutes.PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis containing ethidium bromide and then sequenced.

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J. Biol. Chem. 279(10), 8761–8768. CzcR-CzcS, a two-component system involved in heavy metal and carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 2004

Perron, K., Caille, O., Rossier, C., van Delden, C., Dumas, J.L., and Kohler, T.

Notes: Two genes (CzcR and CzcS) encoding the CzcCBA (cobalt/zinc/cadmium) heavy metal efflux pump were cloned using  Pfu DNA Polymerase and genomic DNA from PT5 and PT1105 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The products were 900 and 1,600 bp, respectively. RNA from 5 different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated and treated with RQ1 RNase-Free DNase.  The RNA was used in reverse transcription reactions with the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase and random primers.  Copy-DNAs produced from the reaction were stored at -20°C until use in real-time PCR.  (3044)

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Hum. Mol. Genet. 13, 535-542. Deficiency of the first mannosylation step in the N-glycosylation pathway causes congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ik. 2004

Grubenmann, C.E., Frank, C.G., Hulsmeier, A.J., Schollen, E., Matthijs, G., Mayatepek, E., Berger, E.G., Aebi, M. and Hennet, T.

Notes: cDNA was synthesized from 5μg total RNA from patient skin fibroblasts using the specific ALG1 β1,4 mannosyltransferase primer in the presence of 5% DMSO and 1 unit of ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase. Reverse transcription reactions were performed at 42°C for one hour.  PCR amplification of the cDNA produced ~1,200bp amplimers.  (3180)

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J. Immunol. 172, 2687-2696. HIV-1 does not provoke alteration of cytokine gene expression in lymphoid tissue after acute infection ex vivo. 2004

Audige, A., Schlaepfer, E., Bonanomi, A., Joller, H., Knuchel, M.C., Weber, M., Nadal, D. and Speck, R.F.

Notes: The authors used real-time quantitative PCR to characterize cytokine response after HIV infection of human lymphoid tissues. To synthesize first-strand cDNA, total RNA was reverse transcribed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System: 200U of ImProm-II Reverse Transcriptase, 2µg of total RNA, 500ng of oligo(dT) primer, 500µM dNTPs 3mM MgCl2 and 24U of RNase inhibitor in 1x ImProm-II™ reaction buffer. To obtain viral stocks for infection, 293T cells were transfected with the proviral plasmids pNL4-3 and pYU-2 using the ProFection® Mammalian Transfection System—Calcium Phosphate. (3455)

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Plant Physiol. 135, 1540–1551. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER homolog and its correlation with juvenility in citrus. 2004

Pillitteri, L.J., Lovatt, C.J. and Walling, L.L.

Notes: The authors identified a TERMINAL FLOWER homolog, CsTFL, in Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis) and investigated its role and the role of other genes in juvenility and flower production. The CsTFL gene was amplified from genomic DNA using PCR and degenerate primers, and amplification products were cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. The resulting clones were sequenced using the fmol® DNA Cycle Sequencing System. The CsTFL cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR, using 4 µg of total RNA from whole flowers and ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase. The amplified cDNA was then cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. To evaluate CsTFL gene copy number and allele origins, the authors performed a Southern blot with 10 µg of genomic DNA and a CsTFL probe labeled with the Prime-a-Gene® Labeling System. To characterize CsTFL expression in various citrus tissues, RT-PCR was performed with 2 µg of total RNA and ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase. The levels of CsTFL RNA and other RNAs were determined by cDNA synthesis using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase, followed by real-time PCR. Amplification products were quantitated by SYBR® Green fluorescence. Standard curves for each real-time PCR target were generated using known amounts of in vitro transcribed RNA. Prior to reverse transcription and real-time PCR, total RNA samples were treated with RQ1 RNase-Free DNase to remove DNA contaminants. (3650)

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Gene 325, 97–101. The bovine (Bos taurus) CD11a-encoding cDNA: molecular cloning, characterisation and comparison with the human and murine glycoproteins. 2004

Fett, T., Zecchinon, L., Baise, E., and Desmecht, D.

Notes: In this paper,  ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase was used to generate a full length, ~4560 bp cDNA of bovine CD11 messenger RNA from PMA-stimulated BL-3 bovine B cell lymphoma cells. The full length cDNA was amplified using Invitrogen’s Elongase amplification technology. The amplification products were directly sequenced to yield the full sequence of the cDNA. (2848)

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J. Bacteriol. 186, 5576–5554. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator VirR is required for expression of the virulence gene vapA of Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701. 2004

Russell, D.A, Byrne, G.A., O'Connell, E.P., Boland, C.A. and Meijer, W.G.

Notes: These authors performed gel shift (EMSA) assays to determine whether purified VirA binds to the vapA promoter. Radiolabeled DNA fragments for the EMSA assays were prepared using DNA Polymerase I Large (Klenow) Fragment. Primer extension using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase localized the transcription start site within the vapA promoter. To characterize the transcriptional organization of the virR gene cluster, the authors performed reverse transcription using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase and Random Primers, followed by PCR using a combinations of primers in opposite orientations throughout the gene cluster. The plasmids used in this study were purified by alkaline lysis method or using the Wizard® Plus SV Minipreps DNA Purification System.

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RNA 10, 469-481. Translation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1) mRNA is IRES mediated and regulated during cell stress. 2004

van Eden, M.E., Byrd, M.P., Sherrill, K.W. and Lloyd, R.E.

Notes: The authors investigate a potential internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5´ untranslated region (UTR) of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1). The c-IAP1 5´ UTR was amplified, cloned into pGEM®-T Vector, sequenced, then inserted into a dicistronic reporter vector between Renilla and firefly luciferase sequences. Using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System, IRES activity was evaluated in Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate and transiently transfected cells. The pSV-β-Galactosidase Control Vector was used as a control for transfection efficiency. Because splicing events were removing part of the Renilla luciferase coding region, the authors chose to use RNA transfection of cells. The ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System was used for the reverse transcription step of RT-PCRs to amplify intercistronic regions of the dicistronic RNA to examine mRNA splicing. (3429)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9422-9427. Cloning and characterization of the Drosophila U7 small nuclear RNA. 2003

Dominski, Z., Yang, X.C., Purdy, M. and Marzluff, W.F.

Notes: Improm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase was used to clone U7T snRNA isolated from Drosophila nuclear extracts. The authors used 1ng of extracted U7T snRNA, 30ng of a U7T primer, and 1μl of the Improm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase. cDNAs from the reaction were PCR-amplified and cloned. The resultant clones were used to make probes for Northern blot analysis. (2723)

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J. Biol. Chem. 278(34), 31895-31901. Down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in PC12 cells by nerve growth factor stimulation. 2003

Naranjo-Suárez, S., Carmen Castellanos, M., Alvarez-Tejado, M., Vara,A., Landázuri, M.O. and del Peso, L.

Notes: In this paper, the authors describe use of ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase to transcribe cDNAs for Quantitative RT-PCR. Reverse transcription (RT) reactions were performed with 1μg total RNA from treated rat PC12 cells. Light Cycler reactions were setup with 1-3μl cDNA from the RT reactions. The researchers incubated cells with EGF and bFGF and analyzed HIF-2α mRNA levels. For these experiments, PC12 cells were incubated with 30ng/ml EGF or 50μM bFGF for 8 hours. Erk1&2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blot using the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb. Western results were visualized by chemiluminesent detection and analyzed with a digital luminescent image analyzer. The Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System was used to analyze PC12 cell-expressed luciferase from pEpoEm1-luc and pEpoE-luc promoter constructs that were normalized with the pRL-TK vector. Cells were harvested 17-18 hours post transfection and treatment. (2725)

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Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 309, 222–231. Hypoxia induces apoptosis in SV40-immortalized rat proximal tubular cells through the mitochondrial pathways, devoid of HIF1-mediated upregulation of Bax. 2003

Tanaka, T., Hanafusa, N., Ingelfinger, J.R., Ohse, T., Fujita, T., and Nangaku, M.

Notes: ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase was used in real time RT-PCR to measure the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in immortalized rat proximal tubular cells (IRPTCs) cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. The researchers used 1μg of total RNA in the reverse transcription reaction. Qiagen’s QuantiTest CYBR Green PCT Kit was used to quantify PCR products. Promega’s terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) was also used for TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays on the cells. The TUNEL-stained cells were analyzed by FACS analysis. Data from these experiments was expressed as percent apoptotic cells.  (2849)

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J. Virol. 77, 1992-2002. Molecular and functional analysis of an interferon gene from the zebrafish, Danio rerio. 2003

Altmann, S.M., Mellon, M.T., Distel, D.L. and Kim, C.H.

Notes: The pGEM®-T Easy Vector was used to subclone products of a 5´ RACE reaction. A promoter construct, assembled in the pGL3 Basic Vector, was co-transfected with a zebrafish interferon expression vector in the ZF4 zebrafish embryo fibroblast cell line using the TransFast™ Reagent (details provided). Luciferase levels were examined with the BrightGlo™ Luciferase Assay Reagent. Induction of zebrafish mRNA was also examined in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) following treatment with the known interferon inducer, poly(I)-poly(C). RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed using ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase. The resulting cDNA was used for quantitative, real-time RT-PCR with a SYBR green-based assay. (2627)

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J. Nutr. 133, 45-50. Pancreatic metallothionein-I may play a role in zinc homeostasis during maternal dietary zinc deficiency in mice 2003

Lee, D.K., Geiser, J., Dufner-Beattie, J. and Andrews, G.K.

Notes: The ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcriptase was used to amplify the protein coding region of a 2,264 base mouse MT-1 gene mRNA and GAPDH from mouse total RNA.  RT-PCR was accomplished with Pfu DNA polymerase.  The RT-PCR product was used to make a probe for Northern analysis. (2609)

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