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J. Cell Sci. 124, 745–54. PERP regulates enamel formation via effects on cell-cell adhesion and gene expression. 2011

Jheon, A.H., Mostowfi, P., Snead, M.L., Ihrie, R.A., Sone, E., Pramparo, T., Attardi, L.D. and Klein, O.D.

Notes: The authors determined that PERP, a tetraspan membrane protein, is required for enamel formation during tooth development in mice. Using microarray analysis, they then identified genes that were differentially expressed in wildtype and Perp-null mice and might be involved in enamel formation. Differential expression of these genes was confirmed by qPCR using the GoTaq® qPCR Master Mix. The authors also identified an upstream regulator of Perp, P63, by transfecting cells derived from embryonic mouse teeth with a Perp-luciferase reporter construct that contained a P63 response element or mutated P63 response element. A Renilla luciferase vector was used for normalization of transfection efficiency, and luciferase assays were performed using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (4168)

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J. Biol. Chem. 286, 37147–57. The E3 ubiquitin ligase mind bomb-2 (MIB2) protein controls B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-dependent NF-κB activation. 2011

Stempin, C.C., Chi, L., Giraldo-Vela, J.P., High, A.A., Häcker, H. and Redecke, V.

Notes: The authors used the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System to measure NF-κB firefly luciferase activity normalized to Renilla luciferase (pRL-TK) in transfected HEK293T and EL4 cells. Coumermycin-treated HEK293 and EL4 cells transiently transfected with B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) led to transcriptional NF-κB activation in a dose dependent manner. Dimerization of BCL10 by coumermycin was used to mimic physiological stimulation through T cell receptor cross-linking, which initiates BCL10-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Overexpression experiments showed that E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Mind Bomb-2 (MIB2) controlled BCL10-mediated activation of NF-κB by promoting autoubiquitination and ubiquitination of IKKγ, a kinase responsible for phosphorylating IκBα protein. The authors identified that the C-terminal RING finger domain of MIB2 was critical for protein ubiquitination in NF-κB activation, which was confirmed by the NF-κB luciferase reporter response to various MIB2 mutants. (4180)

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Biochem. J. 436, 387–397. The novel Nrf2-interacting factor KAP1 regulates susceptibility to oxidative stress by promoting the Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective response. 2011

Maruyama, A., Nishikawa, K., Kawatani, Y., Mimura, J., Hosoya, T., Harada, N., Yamamato, M. and Itoh, K.

Notes: These authors first used a FLAG-tagged protein (nfr2) with a HeLa Nuclear extract and captured interacting proteins via SDS-PAGE and in-gel digests of bands to identify (Krüppel-associated box)-associated protein 1 (KAP1) as a potential interacting partner. Human KAP1 was purchased as a HaloTag® CMV Flexi® Vector from Kazusa and used in a Mammalian PullDown scenario (with HaloLink™ Resin) to demonstrate interaction between the two proteins. A reporter assay was used to show that KAP1 facilitates Nrf2 transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. The authors defined the interaction sites using GST-tagged nrf2 and various forms of KAP1-HaloTag® Fusions expressed in TNT® SP6 High-Yield Wheat Germ Extract. GST-tagged proteins were expressed in E. coli and bound to glutathione-Sepharose beads. These bound proteins were mixed with the KAP1 from the cell-free expression system, incubated for 4 hours at 4°C, washed and stained with the HaloTag® TMR Ligand for 30 minutes. The proteins from the pull-down assay were subjected to SDS-PAGE and the HaloTag® proteins detected by phosphorimaging and the GST proteins by Coomassie Brilliant Blue Staining. A two-hybrid system consisting of the pRL-TK Vector with a firefly luciferase reporter with Gal4 UAS, mouse Nrf-2 N-terminal domain and KAP1 was also used. The vectors were transfected into Nrf2 knockout MEFs for 4 hours then incubated for 36 hours before luciferase expression was determined using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (4123)

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J. Cell Sci. 123, 3789-3795. CLP-1 associates with MyoD and HDAC to restore skeletal muscle cell regeneration. 2010

Galatioto, J., Mascareno, E., and Siddiqui, M.A.

Notes: These authors investigated the role of the cardiac lineage protein 1 (CLP1/HEXIM1) in skeletal myogenesis. They showed that CLP1 knockout C2C12 cells were unable to differentiate, and then investigated the hypothesis that CLP1 associates with MyoD and HDAC proteins to downregulate cell cycle genes, such as cyclin D1, and allow expression of differentiation-specific genes. RNasin® Ribonuclease inhibitor was used in coimmunoprecipitation assays investigating the interaction between CLP1 and HDAC in C2C12 cells under differentiation and non-differentiation culture conditions. RNasin® was included during cell lysate preparation prior to coimmunoprecipitation assays with antibodies directed against various HDAC proteins. The authors also performed  a luciferase reporter assay using the Dual-Luciferase® Assay System to investigate the regulation of cyclin D1 expression by CLP1, MyoD and HDAC. A luciferase reporter-cyclin D1 construct was co-transfected with MyoD, HDAC and CLP1 constructs and the effect on luciferase expression examined under differentiation and non-differentiation conditions. In differentiation medium MyoD, CLP1 and HDAC5 acted synergistically to reduce cyclin D1 expression. (4225)

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J. Biol. Chem. 285, 13012–21. DAXX is a new AIRE-interacting protein. 2010

Meloni, A., Fiorillo, E., Corda, D., Incani, F., Serra, M.L., Contini, A., Cao, A. and Rosatelli, M.C.

Notes: The authors used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein. DAXX, a multifunctional protein involved in apoptosis and transcription regulation, interacts with AIRE, as shown through coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization studies. Colocalization of AIRE and DAXX in HeLa cells was demonstrated by confocal microscopy using a Monster Green® Fluorescent Protein-AIRE fusion protein and endogenous DAXX, which was detected using an anti-DAXX primary antibody and an anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated with Texas Red fluorophore. However, AIRE and DAXX did not interact in vitro in a GST pull-down assay using a GST-AIRE construct, radiolabeled DAXX protein expressed in a TNT® system, and MagneGST™ Glutathione Particles, leading the authors to speculate that the interaction is weak or there are scaffold proteins required for protein interaction. To examine the effect of DAXX on AIRE transcriptional activity, the authors transfected COS-1 and HeLa cells with AIRE and DAXX expression constructs and a luciferase reporter plasmid with the human insulin promoter, then performed Dual Luciferase® Reporter Assays. AIRE induced transcription of the insulin promoter, but coexpression of DAXX suppressed this transcriptional activation. (4153)

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J. Biol. Chem. 285, 37787–96. Osteopontin and protein kinase C regulate PDLIM2 activation and STAT1 ubiquitination in LPS-treated murine macrophages. 2010

Guo, H., Mi, Z., Bowles, D.E., Bhattacharya, S.D. and Kuo, P.C.

Notes: The authors investigated the role of the ubiquitin E3 ligase PDLIM2 in the degradation of signal tranducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). They showed that activation of PDLIM2 and subsequent STAT1 ubiquitination require protein kinase C-mediated phoshorylation of PDLIM2 on serine 137. Polyhistidine-tagged PDLIM2 and polyhistidine-tagged mutants PDLIM2-S137A and PDLIM2-S137D were purified using the MagneHis™ Protein Purification System for use in in vitro phosphorylation and ubiquitination assays. One mechanism used to assess levels of STAT1 was a reporter assay using RAW264.7 cells transfected with a pGL3-based construct containing a interferon γ-activated sequence (GAS) upstream of the firefly luciferase reporter gene. Expression of wildtype PDLIM2, but not the mutant forms, resulted in much lower levels of STAT1 protein, and thus lower luciferase activity, when cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide. The pRL-TK Vector was used to normalize for transfection efficiency. Luciferase assays were performed using the Dual Luciferase® Reporter Assay System and Reporter Lysis Buffer. (4152)

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J. Biol. Chem. 284, 6773–6781. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia-associated JAK1 mutants activate the Janus kinase/STAT pathway via interleukin-9 receptor alpha homodimers. 2009

Hornakova, T., Staerk, J., Royer, Y., Flex, E., Tartaglia, M., Constantinescu, S.N., Knoops, L. and Renauld, J.C.

Notes: The authors studied the ability of JAK1 V658F and A634D mutants to activate the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway when expressed alone or together with the other components of the interleukin-9 receptor complex. The BOX1 motif of wild-type IL-9Rα, the JAK interacting region, was mutated from PXP to SXS using the GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System. To assess STAT transcriptional activity, HEK293 human embryonic kidney, COS-7 monkey kidney, U4C human fibrosarcoma and g2A cells were cotransfected with 250ng of the appropriate constructs, 500ng of firefly luciferase vectors and 50ng of pRL-TK Vector and empty plasmid for a total 1.5µg of DNA. After 24 hours, the cells were lysed in 150µl of Passive Lysis Buffer and reporter activity measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. The ProFection® Mammalian Transfection System—Calcium Phosphate was used to transfect 106 HEK293 cells in a six-well plate with 3.75µg of plasmid for Western blot analysis and cotransfected 6 × 106 HEK293 cells in a 100mm dish with 14µg plasmid for immunoprecipitation studies. (4025)

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Cancer Res. 69, 272–281. Cyclin-dependent kinase-3-mediated c-Jun phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 enhances cell transformation. 2009

Cho, Y.Y., Tang, F., Yao, K., Lu, C., Zhu, F., Zheng, D., Pugliese, A., Bode, A.M. and Dong, Z.

Notes: This paper examined the role of the Cdk3/c-Jun signaling in EGF-stimulated cell proliferation and cell transformation. An AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid construct was contransfected with various expression vector combinations of Cdk3, Cdk2, c-Jun, c-Jun M63/73, Cdk3-DN and cyclin C and the phRL-SV40 Vector as a normalization control. Cells were lysed at room temperature for 30 minutes with gentle shaking and luciferase activity measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. SaoS-2 cells transfected with a mock and Cdk3 RNAi vector were seeded at a density of 4 x 103 in 96-well plates with 20µl of medium. After 24 hours, 20µl of CellTiter® 96 AQueous One Solution was dispensed to each well, and the plate incubated for 1 hour at 37°C. The reaction was stopped using 25µl of 10% SDS and absorbance was measured at 492 and 690nm. For the CheckMate™ Mammalian Two-Hybrid System, the plasmid constructs, pACT-c-Jun, pBIND-Cdk3 and pG5luc, were cotransfected into HEK293 cells at no more than 100ng/well in a 48-well plate. After incubation and lysis, 20µl of lysate was dispensed into each well of a 96-well luminescence plate. Firefly and Renilla luciferase activity was detected. (4028)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 37, 2070–86. HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins up-regulate cellular expression of human topoisomerase IIα. 2009

Stros, M., Polanská, E., Struncová, S. and Pospísilová, S.

Notes: The authors examined whether HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins could affect promoter activity of the topoisomerase IIα gene. Portions of the topoisomerase IIα gene promoter were cloned into the pGL3 Basic Vector, and Saos-2 cells were cotransfected with the resulting constructs, an HMGB1- or HMGB2-expressing plasmid and the pRL-tk Vector as a control for normalization. Firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were determined using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay. To determine whether HMGB1 and HMGB2 promoted binding of the transcription factor nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) to the topoisomerase IIα promoter, the authors used a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Two populations of Saos-2 cells, one of which expressed HMGB1 or HMGB2 and one that had expression inhibited, were fixed with formaldehyde, then treated to shear chromatin. Immunoprecipitation was performed using an anti-NF-Y antibody, and the amount of DNA bound to the NF-Y was quantified by semi-quantitative PCR using GoTaq® Hot Start DNA Polymerase and Green GoTaq® Flexi Reaction Buffer. (4037)

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J. Biol. Chem. 284, 13348–13354. Identification of loss of function mutations in human genes encoding RIG-I and MDA5: implications for resistance to type I diabetes. 2009

Shigemoto, T., Kageyama, M., Hirai, R., Zheng, J., Yoneyama, M. and Fujita, T.

Notes: Here the authors studied various non-synonymous SNPs of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) that are essential for detecting viral RNA and triggering antiviral responses. Various point mutations were introduced into RIG-1 and MDA5 using the GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System with pEF-FLAG clones. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and L929 cells were cotransfected with RIG-I mutants or MDA5mutants and pRL-TK Vector, and stimulated with RNA or viral infection. Reporter activity was measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (4024)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 37, 78–95. Regulation of human dUTPase gene expression and p53-mediated transcriptional repression in response to oxaliplatin-induced DNA damage. 2009

Wilson, P.M., Fazzone, W., LaBonte, M.J., Lenz, H.J. and Ladner, R.D.

Notes: The authors examined the role of p53 in modulating dUTPase promoter activity. Base substitution mutations of Sp1- and E2F-binding sites in the dUTPase promoter were performed using the GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System. Each mutant was confirmed by DNA sequencing. To determine growth inhibition, HCT116 human colon cancer cells were seeded in 96-well plates at 3 × 103 cells/well and treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR), oxaliplatin or in combination. After 72 hours, the CellTiter® 96 AQueous One Solution was dispensed into each well and absorbance measured. RNA was isolated from HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53-/- cells. cDNA was reverse transcribed from 200ng total RNA followed by multiplex qPCR using the Plexor™ qPCR System to amplify dUTPase, thymidylate synthase and GAPDH, a housekeeping gene. The 1.2 kb region of the dUTPase promoter upstream of the transcriptional start site was amplified by PCR and the fragment cloned into the pGL3-Basic Vector. Truncated promoters were also generated by PCR and cloned into the same vector. Drosophila SL-2 cells and HCT116 cell lines were seeded in a 24-well plate and transfected with dUTPase pGL3 promoter constructs or with pCI-Neo:p53WT, pCI-Neo:p53MUT and the empty pCI-neo Mammalian Expression Vector; all transfections included the pRL-TK Vector at a ratio of 1:10. After six hours, the cells were incubated in either fresh medium or medium containing a cytotoxic agent at the appropriate concentration. Thirty hours later, the cells were lysed, quantitated by Western blotting and 20µl of lysate analyzed with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses (EMSA) were performed using –64 to –91 of the dUTPase-nuclear isoform transcriptional start site in the Gel Shift Assay System. (4031)

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Plant Physiol. 150, 1356–1367. Sucrose control of translation mediated by an upstream open reading frame-encoded peptide. 2009

Rahmani, F., Hummel, M., Schuurmans, J., Wiese-Klinkenberg, A., Smeekens, S. and Hanson, J.

Notes: The authors were wanted to study the upstream open reading frame 2 (uORF2) of the 5’ leader of bZIP11 mRNA, which has a role in sucrose regulation. The whole 5’ leader fragment of bZIP11 was subcloned into the pALTER® Vector and amino acid substitutions were introduced using the Altered Sites® II in vitro Mutagenesis System. The pGEM®-T Easy Vector was used to clone two PCR fragments that were then subcloned using restriction enzymes to create a fusion of uORF2 to a different 5’ leader. Arabidopsis seedlings were transformed via particle bombardment. 20mg of plant tissue was ground in Passive Lysis Buffer, centrifuged, and 20µl of the supernatant was assessed for reporter gene expression using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (4023)

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Mol. Pharmacol. 73, 769-777. Dioxin-mediated up-regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes is dependent on the calcium/calmodulin/CaMKIalpha pathway. 2008

Monteiro, P., Gilot, D., Le Ferrec, E., Rauch, C., Lagadic-Gossmann, D., and Fardel, O.

Notes: Regulation of genes targeted by the ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been shown to be controlled by calcium (Ca(2+)) changes induced by AhR agonists such as the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). This study investigated this link. As part of the study, MCF-7 cells were transfected with various pGL3 firefly luciferase reporter constructs and the control pRL-TK Vector expressing Renilla luciferase. Transfection conditions were as follows: MCF-7 cells were cultured in 24-well plates and transfection was performed using FuGENE® 6 transfection reagentwith a FuGENE:DNA ration of 3:1. Firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (4362)

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Mol. Biosyst. 4, 59-65. A general system for evaluating the efficiency of chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) of proteins reveals Ru(II) tris-bipyridyl as an unusually efficient "warhead". 2008

Lee, J., Yu, P., Xiao, X. and Kodadek, T.

Notes: In this paper, researchers were looking for efficient chromophores for singlet oxygen generation used for chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) of proteins. The HaloTag® protein and firefly luciferase were used to test how well the chromophores performed in crude extracts and living cells. The expression vector for an epitope-tagged Luciferase-HTP protein, 3X Flag-Luc-HTP-Myc, was constructed using firefly luciferase amplified from the pGL3-Basic Vector and HaloTag® (HTP) amplified from the pHT2 Vector. The fusion protein was tested for labeling with a HaloTag® biotin ligand by transfecting HeLa cells with 8μg of 3X Flag-Luc-HTP-Myc plasmid and 80ng of pRL-SV40 Vector. After transfection, cells were lysed with Passive Lysis Buffer and 2μl of HeLa cell lysate was diluted in 48μl of PBS + BSA and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature with increasing concentrations of a biotin-HT ligand. The samples then were incubated with streptavidin-agarose for 30 minutes at room temperature, centrifuged and the luciferase activity of 20μl of supernatant was measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. The fusion protein was also tested using two chromophore ligands, ruthenium(II)tris-bipyridyl (Ru-HaloTag®[HT]) and fluoroscein-HT at a concentration of 100nM, and both were successful as measured by the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. An in vivo CALI was performed by transfecting HeLa cells with 100ng of 3X Flag-HTP-Luc-Myc plasmid and 1ng of pRL-SV40 Vector for 15 hours, and treating the cells with Ru-HT or F-HT for 3 hours. The cells were then irradiated for 30 minutes, placed in the dark for 30 minutes, then the cells were lysed and analyzed with the DLR Assay. (3954)

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J. Cell Sci. 121, 3207–3217. All EGF(ErbB) receptors have preformed homo- and heterodimeric structures in living cells. 2008

Tao, R.H. and Maruyama, I.N.

Notes: The CheckMate™ Mammalian Two-Hybrid System was used to explore the dimerization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases without ligand. The intracellular domains of EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 were amplified and cloned into both the pACT and pBIND Vectors. Transfection into NIH3T3 cells in 12-well plates occurred with 0.3 μg of pG5luc Vector (the reporter vector), 0.2 μg of pACT Vector or an equimolar amount of pACT construct, and 0.1 μg of pBIND Vector or an equimolar amount of pBIND construct. After 24 hours, the cells were lysed and luciferase activity assessed using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (3993)

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J. Biol. Chem. 283, 5719–27. Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. 2008

Heikkinen, L.S., Kazlauskas, A., Melén, K., Wagner, R., Ziegler, T., Julkunen, I. and Saksela, K.

Notes: The authors identified the N-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-binding motif of Crk and CrkL as the preferred binding partner of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), an important virulence factor of the influenza A virus. Interaction of NS1 with Crk, CrkL and other SH3 domain-containing proteins p85, p85β and Eps8L1 was investigated by protein pull-down assays. Expression constructs for biotinylated Crk, CrkL, p85, p85β and Eps8L1 were created by amplifying the 123 amino acid biotin acceptor domain from Propionibacterium shermanii from the PinPoint Xa-T Vector and inserting it upstream of the protein-coding sequences in a pGEX vector derivative. These constructs and a construct encoding Myc-tagged NS1 were transfecting into 293FT cells, and the biotinylated proteins were immobilized from the cell lysate using TetraLink™ Tetrameric Avidin Resin. Any Myc-NS1 that bound to the immobilized protein was detected using Western Blot analysis and an anti-Myc antibody. The authors also investigated the ability of wildtype NS1 or NS1 mutants to inhibit interferon-induced gene expression. A reporter plasmid was created by cloning an interferon-stimulated response element upstream of a minimal thymidine kinase promoter driving firefly luciferase expression. A vector containing Renilla luciferase was used as a control to normalize transfection efficiency. Huh-7 cells were cotransfected with the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter constructs (0.2µg and 5ng, respectively), treated with interferon-β and lysed using the Passive Lysis Buffer. Firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were measured using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System. (3803)

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Development 135, 541-557. Impaired generation of mature neurons by neural stem cells from hypomorphic Sox2 mutants 2008

Cavallaro, M., Mariani, J., Lancini, C., Latorre, E., Caccia, R., Gullo, F., Valotta, M., DeBiasi, S., Spinardi, L., Ronchi, A., Wanke, E., Brunelli, S., Favaro, r., Ottolenghi, S. and Nicolis, S.K.

Notes: The authors of this paper investigated the role of Sox2 in neuronal differentiation. Neurospheres were derived from the brains of normal and Sox2 hyphomorphic mice and used to generate differentiated neural cells. In astroglia from cultures containing a Sox2-GFP-expressing lentivirus, ectopic expression of Sox2 correlated with reduced GFAP expression. The authors investigated the role of Sox2 by amplifying binding sites upstream of the GFAP promoter and cloning them upstream of the thymidine kinase promoter in the pRL-TK vector. The Dual-Luciferase Assay System was used to analyze the effect of Sox2 expression on the luciferase reporter gene. The DeadEnd™ Fluorometric TUNEL System was also used to assess apoptosis in some of the neurosphere-derived cultures. (3953)

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Biol. Reprod. 79, 938–946. Japanese eel follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh): production of biologically active recombinant Fsh and Lh by Drosophila S2 cells and their differential actions on the reproductive biology. 2008

Kazeto, Y., Kohara, M., Miura, T., Miura, C., Yamaguchi, S., Trant, J.M., Adachi, S. and Yamauchi, K.

Notes: The ORFs of Japanese eel follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) and luteinizing hormone receptor (Lhr) were ligated into the pSI Mammalian Expression Vector. Fifty nanograms of this construct or the pSI Vector was cotransfected with 0.5ng of pRL-null Vector and 1µg or a cAMP-responsive firefly luciferase reporter vector into COS cells seeded in 60mm dishes. The next day, the cells were trypsinized, replated into 96-well plates and allowed to recover for 1 day. The transfected cells were serum-starved then treated with hormones six hours before being lysed and enzymatic activity measured with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (3988)

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Molecular Pharmacology Fast Forward March 11, 2008, epub ahead of print. Kavalactones protect neural cells against amyloid β peptide-induced neurotoxicity via ERK1/2-dependent Nrf2-activation 2008

Wruck, C.J., Götz, M.E., Herdegen, T., Varoga, D., Brandenburg, L-O. and Pufe, T.

Notes: The accumulation of the toxic form of the Amyloid-β peptide is known to induce oxidative damage in the brain. Although treatment with antioxidants has not proven effective at controlling AD symptoms, inducing the natural systems in the brain that protect from oxidative damage may provide a possible therapeutic approach. A host of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes are upregulated by binding of the Nrf2 transcription factor to the ARE (antioxidant response element) regulatory sequence. The authors used a Dual Luciferase® Reporter Assay to assess modulation of gene activity through ARE by kavalactones. Kavalactones are compounds found in the roots and rhizomes of Kava (Piper methysticum), a plant cultivated an used in some Pacific societies for medicinal and social uses. The ARE1 region from the rat NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 gene was placed upstream of a pGL3 firefly luciferase reporter construct and cotransfected along with a pRL-TK Renilla control construct into PC12 or C6 cells. The data show induction of luciferase activity by kavalactones. Further investigation shows that the kavalactones promote Nrf2 stabilization possibly through the ERK1/2 pathway. (3859)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 36, 5391–404. miR-16 family induces cell cycle arrest by regulating multiple cell cycle genes. 2008

Liu, Q., Fu, H., Sun, F., Zhang, H., Tie, Y., Zhu, J., Xing, R., Sun, Z. and Zheng, X.

Notes: To identify microRNA targets, the authors created a Drosha-knockdown cell line and confirmed depletion of Drosha and three randomly selected miRNAs in these cells by quantitative RT-PCR, using β-actin as a control. The reverse transcription step was performed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. The authors then performed microarray analysis to monitor expression of transcripts to determine which were upregulated as a result of Drosha depletion; cRNA used in these microarray experiments was synthesized using the T7 RiboMAX™ Express Large Scale RNA Production System. Cyclin D1 was identified as a potential miRNA target. To screen miRNAs that regulate cyclin D1, the authors cloned the cyclin D1 3´ untranslated region downstream of the firefly luciferase gene of the pGL3-Control Vector and measured luciferase levels in transfected cells using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Renilla luciferase in the pRL-TK Vector was used as a normalization control. (3894)

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Mol. Pharmacol. 73, 1113-1121. PPP1R16A, the membrane subunit of protein phosphatase 1{beta}, signals nuclear translocation of the nuclear receptor CAR. 2008

Sueyoshi, T., Moore, R., Sugatani, J., Matsumura, Y. and Negishi, M.

Notes: This article examines the interaction between CAR, a member of the nuclear steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, which translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus when cells are exposed to phenobaritol, and the membrane-associated subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R16A, or abbreviated as R16A), which is a novel CAR-binding protein. The R16A protein, it was expressed using the TnT® Coupled Reticulocyte Lysate System and labeled with 35S. This protein was incubated with GST-hCAR-fusion protein attached to a glutathione resin; the resin was washed, and the bound protein was separated by PAGE and detected by autoradiography. Affinity-tagged R16A was expressed in HepG2 cells, purified and separated by SDS-PAGE. The two major bands were excised, digested with Sequencing Grade Modified Trypsin, lyophilized, resuspended in acetonitrile and subjected to mass spectrometric analyses. The CheckMate™ Mammalian Two-Hybrid System was used to examine the interaction between wildtype and mutated R16A. Forty-eight hours posttransfection into HepG2 cells or 16 hours after DNA injection into mice and liver homogenization, the luciferase activities were measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (3752)

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J. Biol. Chem. 283, 23514–23. Snail regulates cell-matrix adhesion by regulation of the expression of integrins and basement membrane proteins. 2008

Haraguchi, M., Okubo, T., Miyashita, Y., Miyamoto, Y., Hayashi, M., Crotti, T.N., McHugh, K.P. and Ozawa, M.

Notes: Snail is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin that enhances both cell attachment and cell detachment in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and A4231 cells. To investigate this effect, the authors used Western blot analysis and RT-PCR to monitor protein and mRNA levels of the major adhesive proteins expressed in epithelial cells: laminin, heparin sulfate proteoglycan and collagens. For RT-PCR, total RNA was isolated from transiently transfected snail-expressing MDCK and A431 cells and untransfected cells, then reverse transcribed. The resulting cDNA was amplified by PCR using GoTaq® DNA Polymerase; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was amplified as an internal control. The ability of Snail to regulate the integrin αV promoter was also examined by cloning the promoter and several promoter deletions upstream of a firefly luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3-Basic Vector. Each of these constructs (1µg) and 20ng of pRL-CMV Vector were transfected into MDCK and MDCK/snail cells, and luminescence was measured using the Dual Luciferase Assay System. (3882)

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Blood 111, 33498-33506. Transcription factor Erg regulates angiogenesis and endothelial apoptosis through VE-cadherin. 2008

Birdsey GM, Dryden NH, Amsellem V, Gebhardt F, Sahnan K, Haskard DO, Dejana E, Mason JC, Randi AM.

Notes: These authors showed that the ETS transcription factor Erg interacts with the VE-cadherin promoter region and regulates endothelial apoptosis through this interaction. They demonstrated that inhibition of Erg by siRNA resulted in decreased VE-cadherin mRNA and protein levels, and showed that Erg interacts with the VE-cadherin promoter using a CHIP assay. To show the functional relevance of this interaction, HeLa cells were transfected with a pGL4 Vector containing the VE-cadherin promoter region and an expression vector containing Erg2 cDNA. In this reporter assay, Erg overexpression resulted in ~1.8 fold transactivation of VE-cadherin promoter activity, as measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. Inhibition of Erg in human umbilical vein endothelial cells also resulted in a loss of viability and an increase in activation of caspase 3 and caspase 7. The authors showed that apoptosis could be significantly decreased by overexpression of VE-cadherin, indicating that Erg regulates survival partially via its interaction with VE-cadherin. The Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay was used to measure caspase activity in these experiments. (3872)

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Anticancer Res. 27, 3843–8. Pamidronate down-regulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. 2007

Iguchi, K. et al.

Notes: In this paper, the authors hypothesized that bisphosphonates, which are used to prevent tumor metastasis, affect expression of urokinasetype plasminogen activator (uPA), which seems to be critical for prostate cancer metastasis. The authors examined the effect of several bisphosphonates on uPA expression in PC-3 cells. Pamidronate treatment resulted in lower uPA mRNA levels. To investigate the cause, the authors created a uPA reporter construct (pGL3-uPA) by cloning the 5′-flanking region of the human uPA gene upstream of a firefly luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3-Basic Vector. PC-3 cells were seeded at a density of 3 × 104 cells/well in 24-well culture plates and transfected with 0.5µg of pGL3-uPA and 1ng of the Renilla luciferase phRL-TK Vector using FuGENE® 6 Transfection Reagent. At 48 hours post-transfection, the authors measured reporter activity using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System to learn that treatment with 100µM pamidronate inhibited transcription of the uPA gene. (4384)

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Cancer Res. 67, 1254-1261. A small-molecule enhancer of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 transcriptional activity accentuates the antiproliferative effects of IFN-γ in human cancer cells 2007

Lynch, R.A., Etchin, J., Battle, T.E. and Frank, D.A.

Notes: STAT1 is a transcription factor that is involved in a variety of cellular processes and behaves like a tumor suppressor in many ways. It is associated with apoptosis, inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases, and it may mediate the antitumor effects of IFN-γ. The authors of this study designed a bioluminescent reporter assay to identify small molecules that enhance STAT1-dependent gene expression. The bioluminescent assay was performed in 384-well plates using both stably and transiently transfected cell lines. The screening assay was robust, producing a Z´factor value of 0.92, and it identified three compounds that specifically enhanced STAT1-dependent transcriptional activity. Firefly luciferase activity in stable cell lines was assessed using the Bright-Glo® Luciferase Assay System; luciferase activity in the transiently transfected cells was monitored using the Dual-Luciferase® Assay System. Viability of cells in culture was monitored using the CellTiter-Glo® Assay. (3732)

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