Diabetes Research Resources
We design and manufacture cell-based assays that deliver more biologically relevant data for basic research, drug discovery and screening applications. Learn more about our company.
View this poster presentation to learn about bioluminescent assays for measuring insulin and glucagon secretion, and detecting insulin action on lipid and glucose metabolism.
New Products for Diabetes Research
Scalable Immunoassays to Detect Insulin or Glucagon
Detecting insulin or glucagon secreted from pancreatic cells or islets can be labor intensive due to the many steps required in a typical ELISA or RIA, especially when you are dealing with hundreds or thousands of samples from a perfusion experiment. Homogeneous assays reduce the steps required and are scalable to account for a high number of data points.
With our new Lumit™ technology, you can get high quality data from your cell-based secretion experiments in just 70 minutes. The protocol is simple, with no wash or transfer steps, and the assay format is scalable to fit your plate size and throughput needs. Using Lumit™ assays, you can perform a high-throughput glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) experiment in the morning and be analyzing insulin and glucagon secretion data by the afternoon, allowing you to make experimental decisions rapidly and move your diabetes research forward.
Easy and Robust Assays for Measuring Insulin Activity in Cells
Common Pathways Measured in Response to Insulin Levels
Lipogenesis: The generation of triglycerides and other lipid molecules is upregulated in adipocytes and hepatocytes in response to insulin. In this way, insulin acts as a storage-promoting hormone. Elevated levels of insulin indicate to cells that energy (glucose) is plentiful and should be stored. The increase in triglyceride levels can be measured using the Triglyceride-Glo™ Assay.
Lipolysis: Lipolysis is the breakdown of triglycerides into a molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. Insulin inhibits lipolysis, so that cells preferentially use the glucose present when insulin levels are high. The result of lipolysis is an increase in glycerol molecules, which can be measured with the Glycerol-Glo™ Assay.
Gluconeogenesis: The generation of new molecules of glucose is inhibited in cells where insulin levels are elevated. Because insulin is elevated in conditions where glucose is elevated, insulin signals cells to not make any more glucose and rather use the glucose present. Levels of glucose can be measured with the Glucose-Glo™ Assay.
Glucose Uptake Rate: Insulin increases the rate at which cells take up glucose through glucose transporters. This allows cells to uptake glucose for storage and use. The Glucose Uptake-Glo™ Assay can be used to measure the increase in rate of glucose uptake.
GLUT4 Translocation: In the presence of insulin, GLUT4 transporters are translocated to the plasma membrane to facilitate the uptake of glucose by cells. GLUT4 is primarily found on adipocyte and muscle cells. The GLUT4-HiBiT Reporter* can be used to monitor the translocation of the GLUT4 transporter in cells in real time.
Glycogenesis: Glycogen, a polymer of glucose, is a primary carbohydrate storage form. Insulin upregulates the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen in myocytes (muscle cells) and hepatocytes. The Glycogen-Glo™ Assay* can be used to measure the increase in glycogen.
*Glycogen-Glo™ Assay and GLUT4-HiBiT Reporter are currently available through our custom manufacturing service, email us at CAS@promega.com for more information.
Have questions about cell-based assays for your research? Need recommendations for nucleic acid sample preparation and analysis? Contact Technical Services with your questions, or explore our online resources below to learn how we can support your research:
- Energy Metabolism Assays
- Assays for 3D Cell Models
- Insulin Receptor Kinase Enzyme System
- Real-Time Cell Analysis
- Autophagy and Oxidative Stress Assays
- Lumit™ Cytokine Detection Assays
- Caspase-Glo® 1 Inflammasome Assay
- Biological Reagents and Assays
- Luciferase Genetic and Protein Reporter Technologies for Difficult Biology
- Multimode Plate Readers
- Nucleic Acid Analysis Reagents and Instrumentation
Ask the Experts: Energy Metabolism Assays
In this webinar, our researchers answer questions about performing cellular metabolism assays.
Comparison of Glucose Uptake Assay Methods
This article describes the various methods available to measure glucose uptake and lists the advantages and disadvantages of each assay.
Lipid Metabolism Assays
Promega lipid metabolism assays provide sensitive, simple methods to detect and quantify glycerol, triglyceride, cholesterol and cholesterol esters.