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Forensic Sci. Int. 164, 75–78. Allele distribution of 15 STR loci used for human identity purposes in the Greek Cypriot population of the island of Cyprus. 2006

Cariolou, M.A., Manoli, P., Demetriou, N., Bashiardes, E., Karagrigoriou, A. and Budowle, B.

Notes: The authors generated population data for 15 autosomal STRs using the PowerPlex® 16 System and DNA samples collected from 1,475 unrelated Greek Cypriot individuals. DNA was extracted from the blood samples using organic extraction, and 0.5ng was amplified per reaction using the GeneAmp® PCR System 9700. Amplified products were analyzed using an ABI PRISM® 3100 Genetic Analyzer. (3815)

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Hum. Mol. Genet. 15, 999–1013. An exon skipping-associated nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene uncovers a complex interplay between multiple antagonistic splicing elements. 2006

Disset, A., Bourgeois, C.F., Benmalek, N., Claustres, M., Stevenin, J. and Tuffery-Giraud, S.

Notes: To construct dystrophin minigenes, genomic DNA containing a mutation in dystrophin was amplified for exons 30, 31 and 32. The three PCR fragments were combined and amplified into one product. This overlap-extension PCR generated two minigenes which were then cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector and sequenced. After EcoR I digestion, the minigenes were ligated into the pSI Mammalian Expression Vector and transiently transfected into C2C12 cells for expression analysis. (3499)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 6070-6078. An oxidoreductase is involved in cercosporin degradation by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae. 2006

Taylor, T.V., Mitchell, T.K. and Daub, M.E.

Notes: Fungi of the genus Cercospora are plant pathogens that cause leaf spot and blight diseases, and produce the polyketide toxin cercosporin. The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is able to rapidly degrade cercosporin. In this study, X. campestris mutants unable to degrade cercosporin were created by chemical mutagenesis. Complementation studies with a plasmid-based library of X. campestris DNA showed that the ability to degrade cercosporin was restored upon transformation with plasmids containing an oxidoreductase gene and a putative transcriptional regulator. These genes were then amplified from the mutant strains by high-fidelity PCR. The PCR products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, purified using the Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System, and subcloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. The mutant genes were then sequenced to identify the nature of the mutations. (3531)

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J. Biol. Chem. 281, 17410-17419. ATP binding to a unique site in the type-1 S2- inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor defines susceptibility to phosphorylation by protein kinase A. 2006

Wagner, L.E., Betzenhauser, M.J. and Yule, D.I.

Notes: N-terminal GST fusion proteins of portions of the type-1 S2- Ionsitol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor were created using the pFN2A (GST) Flexi® Vector. The constructs were expresed in BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells and used for ATP-binding assays. (3392)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, 6215-6224. Chromosomal integration of LTR-flanked DNA in yeast expressing HIV-1 integrase: down regulation by RAD51 2006

Desfarages, S., San Filippo, J., Fournier, M. Calmels, C., Caumont-Sarcos, A., Litvak, S., Sung, P., Parissi, V.

Notes: In the process of demonstrating the role of IN in HIV-1 integration in yeast, the authors purified all DNA vectors and PCR products with the Wizard® Plus SV Miniprep System and Wizard® SV Gel System. PCR products were generated using Taq DNA Polymerase. The pGEM®-T Vector was used to clone amplification products. Sequencing was performed using BamHI, religated with T4 DNA Ligase. (3704)

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Behav. Ecol. 17, 419–429. Cichlids do not adjust reproductive skew to the availability of independent breeding options. 2006

Heg, D., Bergmuller, R., Bonfils, D., Otti, O., Bachar, A., Burri, R., Heckel, G. and Taborskya, M.

Notes: These authors sought to determine whether helpers in cooperatively breeding species reproduced or if all offspring were from the breeders. They created 32 breeding groups and tested the possibilities of reproductive skew under various conditions. Genomic DNA from breeders and helpers was isolated from ethanol-preserved 1–2 mm2 finclip samples or from whole offspring using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit. Purified DNA was resuspended in 50µl of DNA Rehydration Solution and analyzed by PCR using seven microsatellite primer pairs. (3679)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 2539-2546. Cloning and sequencing of the ompA gene of Enterobacter sakazakii and development of an ompA-targeted PCR for rapid detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula. 2006

Mohan Nair, M.K. and Venkitanarayanan, K.S.

Notes: The outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene of Enterobacter sakazakii was amplified using PCR primers based on E. coli ompA sequences. The resulting PCR product was ligated into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector, and the sequence was confirmed. The ompA sequence was used to develop a PCR for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconsituted infant formula. (3464)

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 5463–5468. Comparative, collaborative, and on-site validation of a TaqMan® PCR method as a tool for certified production of fresh, campylobacter-free chickens. 2006

Krause, M., Josefsen, M.H., Lund, M., Jacobsen, N.R., Brorsen, L., Moos, M., Stockmarr, A. and Hoorfar, J.

Notes: To test if a real-time PCR assay would be able to detect Campylobacter spp. in various chicken samples, several laboratories were involved in a collaborative trial. Each lab was given 18 1ml samples, including 6 chicken neck skin samples, 6 shoe cover fecal samples and 6 cloacal swab samples. DNA was extracted from these samples using the MagneSil® KF, Genomic System, first tested using 20µl of paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and then using 75µl PMPs. Five microliters of purified DNA was used in real-time PCR analysis. (3558)

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J. Biol. Chem. 281, 9901–9908. CpG sites preferentially methylated by Dnmt3a in vivo. 2006

Oka, M., Rodic, N., Graddy, J., Chang, L.J. and Terada, N.

Notes: The Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit was used to isolate genomic DNA from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic bodies (EB) and adult tissues. The purified genomic DNA was subjected to methylation-sensitive restriction fingerprinting (MSRF; digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes followed by amplification of 100ng of digested DNA), or 2µg DNA treated with bisulfite. (3419)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 814-819. Cytokinin-mediated control of leaf longevity by AHK3 through phosphorylation of ARR2 in Arabidopsis. 2006

Kim, H.J., Ryu, H., Hong, S.H., Woo, H.R., Lim, P.O., Lee, I.C., Sheen, J., Nam, H.G. and Hwang, I.

Notes: The authors characterize an Arabidopsis cytokinin-receptor mutant. RNA was isolated from leaf tissue from wildtype and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing various components of the cytokinin signaling pathway. The RNA was reverse transcribed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System, and real-time PCR was performed to quantitate response regulator proteins in the signaling pathway. (3450)

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Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 84, 236-242. Deletion of Cyp6d4 does not alter toxicity of insecticides to Drosophila melanogaster. 2006

Hardstone, M.C., Baker, S.A., Gao, J., Ewer, J., and Scott, J.G.

Notes: Researchers used the GoTaq® DNA Polymerase in PCR screens for excisions around a CYP6d4 gene in the HA-1829 strain of Drosophila. PCR was performed in a 20μl reaction volume using 0.4 Units of GoTaq® DNA Polymerase, 2.75mM MgCl2 and 1μl of DNA (equivalent to the DNA in approximately 1/5 to 1/10 of a fly). (3363)

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J. Appl. Microbiol. 98, 1001-1009. Detection of lactococcal 936-species bacteriophages in whey by magnetic capture hybridization PCR targeting a variable region of receptor-binding protein genes. 2006

Dupont, K., Vogensen, F.K., and Josephsen, J.

Notes: GoTaq® DNA Polymerase was used in PCR to detect Lactococcus lactis phage DNA strains in whey samples. Phage DNA templates were amplified directly from DNase treated and boiled whey samples. For these reactions, the researchers use 0.25µl (1.25 units) of GoTaq® DNA Polymerase for each 50μl reaction. Primers were designed to distinguish various strains of Lactococcus lactis phage receptor-binding protein genes. (3362)

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J. Clin. Microbiol. 44, 3878–82. Detection of multiple noroviruses associated with an international gastroenteritis outbreak linked to oyster consumption. 2006

Le Guyader, F.S., Bon, F., DeMedici, D., Parnaudeau, S., Bertone, A., Crudeli, S., Doyle, A., Zidane, M., Suffredini, E., Kohli, E., Maddalo, F., Monini, M., Gallay, A., Pommepuy, M., Pothier, P. and Ruggeri, F.M.

Notes: The authors linked outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in Italy and France with consumption of oysters contaminated with Norovirus. In Italy Norovirus RNA was detected in fecal samples from infected individuals using the Access RT-PCR System and primers for the Norovirus polymerase region. (3792)

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Vet. Parasitol. 135, 99-104. Determination of prevalence and risk factors of infection with Babesia in small ruminants from Greece by polymerase chain reaction amplification. 2006

Theodoropoulos, G., Gazouli, M., Ikonomopoulos, J.A., Kantzoura, V., and Kominakis, A.

Notes: Researchers used GoTaq® DNA Polymerase to test sheep and goat blood samples for the presence of Babesia DNA. Primers were designed around the 18S rRNA sequence of Babesia sp. PCR was performed in a 50µl reaction volume using 1 unit of GoTaq® DNA Polymerase. Ten microliters of each amplification reaction were loaded on gels and subjected to electrophoresis. (3380)

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J. Med. Microbiol. 55, 273–277. Development of a routine laboratory direct detection system of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. 2006

Nakayama, A., Okayama, A., Hashida, M., Yamamoto, Y., Takebe, H., Ohnaka, T., Tanaka, T. and Imai, S.

Notes: In this study, a real-time PCR assay coupled with a DNA extraction method were used to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)-encoding genes in milk, a source of staphylococcal food poisoning. Pasteurized milk prepared with known concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus was used to generate a standard curve; experimental samples were from a staphylococcal food-poisoning outbreak that occurred in Japan in June 2000. PCR inhibition was overcome by using the following DNA purification method: a sample of milk (100µl) was added to an equal volume of 0.2M sodium hydroxide and incubated at 37°C for 20 minutes. The alkaline-treated sample was neutralized using 10µl of 3M sodium acetate (pH 5.4), extracted with 1ml of petroleum ether, and centrifuged at 13,000 × g for 10 minutes at 25°C. The aqueous phase was transferred to a fresh tube and bacterial DNA was purified from the aqueous solution using the Wizard® SV Genomic DNA Purification System. (3677)

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Mol. Ecol. 15, 1405–1418. Distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of Arabidopsis thaliana over its species range. 2006

Bakker, E.G., Stahl, E.A., Toomajian, C., Nordborg, M., Kreitman, M. and Bergelson, J.

Notes: Variation in five microsatellite loci and five SNPs covering all Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes was examined using samples from four individuals from each of 37 local populations, including North America, England, Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and a selection of ecotypes. Genomic DNA was extracted from leaf tissue using the Wizard® Magnetic 96 DNA Plant System and a GenoGrinder® instrument then used for amplification with the 10 loci chosen. (3427)

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Genetics 173, 1389–1395. Divergence with gene flow in Anopheles funestus from the Sudan Savanna of Burkina Faso, West Africa. 2006

Michel, A.P., Grushko, O., Guelbeogo, W.M., Lobo, N.F., Sagnon, N., Costantini, C. and Besansky, N.J.

Notes: To examine genetic variation in Anopheles funestus, genomic DNA was extracted from single mosquito carcasses (minus the abdomen) using the Wizard® SV 96 Genomic DNA Purification System on a Beckman Coulter Biomek® FX workstation. The purified genomic DNA was diluted 1:10 in water to ~5ng/µl for PCR analysis. (3415)

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Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13, 930–935. DNA vaccine using Mycobacterium bovis Ag85B antigen induces partial protection against experimental infection in BALB/c mice. 2006

Teixeira, F.M., Teixeira, H.C., Ferreira, A.P., Rodrigues, M.F., Azevedo, V., Macedo, G.C. and Oliveira, S.C.

Notes: To test the feasibility of the Mycobacterium bovis Ag85B gene as a DNA vaccine, the gene was amplified by PCR, introducing EcoRI and XbaI restriction endonucleases onto the primers, digested with the restriction enzymes and ligated into the pCI Mammalian Expression Vector. After transformation, the constructs were isolated using the Wizard® Plus Minipreps DNA Purification System and analyzed using endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing. To confirm production of a maltose binding protein (MBP)-Ag85B fusion protein in E. coli, the cell lysate was analyzed by Western blot, stained with a rabbit anti-MBP serum and secondary antibody Anti-Rabbit IgG (Fc), AP Conjugate (1:10,000 dilution) and developed with BCIP/NBT. BALB/c mice pretreated with 10mM cardiotoxin prior to intramuscular DNA immunization using construct pCI-Ag85B, administered at days 0, 15, 30, and 45. The immunization course was 50µl of DNA at a concentration of 1µg/µl in PBS with each animal receiving a total of 100µg of plasmid DNA. Antibody response was assessed at 15 days with an ELISA assay and cytokine presence tested two weeks after immunization using splenocytes for ELISA assays and ICC. (3552)

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Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1045-1054. Effective PCR detection of animal species in highly processed animal byproducts and compound feeds. 2006

Fumière, O., Dubois, M., Baeten, V., von Holst, C. and Berben, G.

Notes: The authors developed a PCR method to detect the presence of meat and bone meal (MBM) in animal feed even if the MBM had been heat treated, and discern whether the animal component is bovine or porcine in origin. The genomic DNA from 100mg of various feedstuffs with known and unknown amounts of MBM, fishmeal or poultry feed or a combination of these compounds was isolated using the Wizard® Magnetic DNA Purification System for Food with the KingFisher System. Real-time PCR was performed using 5μl of extracted DNA. (3750)

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J. Endocrinol. 188, 179–192. Estrous cycle dependent changes in expression and distribution of Fas, Fas ligand, Bcl-2, Bax, and pro- and active caspase-3 in the rat ovary. 2006

Slot, K.A., Voorendt, M., de Boer-Brouwer, M., van Vugt, H.H. and Teerds, K.J.

Notes: The authors examined the locations and levels of apoptosis-related Fas, Fas ligand, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins in ovarian tissue throughout the rat estrus cycle. Protein levels were determined using Western blotting, and proteins were localized by immunhistochemistry. The presence of Fas, Fas ligand, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA in various ovarian tissues was monitored by RT-PCR. Reverse transcription was performed using the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System, 1µg of RQ1 RNase-free DNase-treated RNA and an oligo(dT) primer. One microliter of the reverse transcription reaction was amplified by PCR, and 10µl of the amplification products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. (3724)

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Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 36, 351-356. Expression and mutation statuses of epidermal growth factor receptor in thymic epithelial tumors. 2006

Suzuki, E., Sasaki, H., Kawano, O., Endo, K., Haneda, H., Yukiue, H., Kobayashi, Y., Yano, M., and Fujii, Y.

Notes: In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from 99 frozen thymic epithelial tumor samples using the Wizard® SV Genomic DNA Purification System. Purified DNA was used in TaqMan SNP genotyping assays for 13 epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. (3585)

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Am. J. Pathol. 168, 706–713. Expression of Pax2 in human renal tumor-derived endothelial cells sustains apoptosis resistance and angiogenesis. 2006

Fonsato, V., Buttiglieri, S., Deregibus, M.C., Puntorieri, V., Bussolati, B. and Camussi, G.

Notes: To further understand the transcription factor paired-box 2 (PAX2) gene, 2µg of total RNA isolated from Kaposi’s sarcoma cells were reverse transcribed, and 5µl of the RT reaction was amplified. The PCR product was then cloned into the pTARGET™ Mammalian Expression Vector and two clones identified: PAX2 in the sense orientation and a second in the antisense orientation. The clones were then transfected into two different cell lines: the antisense PAX2 into renal tumor-derived endothelial cells where PAX2 is expressed, and the sense into normal human microvascular endothelial cells where PAX2 is not normally expressed. The effects of PAX2 expression on the cell lines were then examined. (3496)

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Plant Sci. 170, 705-14. Expression profile analysis and biochemical properties of the peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (PMSRA) gene family in Arabidopsis. 2006

Romero, H.M., Pell, E.J. and Tien, M.

Notes: PMSRA expression was examined in 4-week old plants exposed to 10μM methyl viologen, 100μM cercosporin, photo-oxidative stress or ozone. Samples were ground in liquid nitrogen and total RNA isolated. Total RNA (2.5μg) was reverse transcribed into cDNA with random primers d(N)10, then amplified using gene-specific primers for PMSRA1—PMSRA5 and an antibody-mediated hot start containing a mixture of GoTaq® DNA Polymerase and Taq antibody (BD Biosciences, Mountain View CA). In a total volume of 25μl, the RT-PCR reaction mixture contained 2.5 units of GoTaq® DNA Polymerase, 10mM Tris–HCl (pH 8.5), 60mM KCl, 2.4mM MgCl2 and 300μM of each dNTP. For each RT-PCR, a plant 18S universal internal standard (Ambion, Austin TX) was included as a loading control. Amplification reaction conditions were as follows: 27 cycles at 94°C for 45 seconds, 55°C for 45 seconds and 72°C for 1 minute. For each analysis, three rounds of RT-PCR were conducted with three independently isolated total RNA samples. Twenty microliters from each PCR were fractionated by 1.5% (w/v) agarose gel in Tris–borate EDTA buffer and stained with 0.5% (w/v) ethidium bromide. (3370)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, e7. Four-base codon mediated mRNA display to construct peptide libraries that contain multiple nonnatural amino acids. 2006

Muranaka, N., Hohsaka, T. and Sisido, M.

Notes: The authors devised an mRNA display system to generate a peptide library with multiple nonnatural amino acids incorporated into the proteins, an important feature of peptide libraries for successful drug discovery. An mRNA with 3 four-base codons at a random position was used as a template in an in vitro translation system in the presence of charged tRNAs carrying four-base codons. In vitro translations were performed using 3.6 × 1013 molecules of mRNA template and the E. coli S30 Extract System. The mRNA template contained a T7 tag sequence, so the translation products could be detected using an anti-T7 tag antibody and the Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), AP Conjugate. The mRNA-displayed peptides also incorporated a polyhistidine tag so that they could be purified using the MagneHis™ Ni-Particles. After selecting for the desired protein characteristic, the mRNA portion of the mRNA-displayed peptides was reverse transcribed and quantitated by real-time PCR. PCR products were cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector prior to sequencing. (3651)

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Genetics 173, 2143–2149. Functional Implication of an ARG307GLY Substitution in Corticosteroid Binding Globulin, a Candidate Gene for a QTL Associated with Cortisol Variability and Obesity. 2006

Guyonnet-Duperat, V., Geverink, N., Plastow, G.S., Evans, G., Ousova, O., Croisetiere, C., Foury, A., Richard, E., Mormede, P. and Moisan, M.P.

Notes: In this study, the effects of amino acid substitutions in porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin gene (Cbg) were tested on CBG binding and affinity. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood of 92 female pigs studied. Cbg cDNA was obtained by reverse transcribing pig liver total RNA using M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase followed by PCR. The 1257pb cDNA PCR product was ligated into the pTARGET™ Mammalian Expression Vector. The GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System was used to introduce four different codon substitutions in the Cbg cDNA. Once created, the mutated and unmodified Cbg cDNA constructs were transfected into HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney) cells. After 48 hours, the supernatant was collected to analyze secreted CBG. (3498)

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