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J. Biol. Chem. 281, 22656–22664. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling subunit BAF57 is a critical regulator of estrogen receptor function in breast cancer cells. 2007

Garcia-Pedrero, J.M, Kiskinis, E., Parker, M.G., and Belandia, B.

Notes: To examine the role that BAF57, a transcriptional modulator of the estrogen receptor (ER), may have in breast cancer, BT549 cells were transfected with a reporter vector (pGL3-Basic with two estrogen response elements and the human pS2 promoter), the control pRL-CMV Vector and combinations of the following expression vectors: mERα or hERβ, BAF57, SRC1e, SRC1a and RAC3. After 16 hours, the cells were treated with 17β-estradiol. Twenty-four hours later, the cells were harvested and the luciferase activities assayed using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. GST-BAF57 (full-length, N- or C-domain) fusion protein was bound to Sepharose beads and incubated with 17β-estradiol or vehicle and wildtype or one of various mERα interaction domain mutants, which have been expressed and labeled with 35S methionine using a TNT® rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The beads were washed and analyzed for bound protein. ZR-75-1 cells were transfected with BAF57 siRNA then treated with 17β-estradiol 24 hours later. Cell proliferation was measured using the CellTiter® 96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay. (3599)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 27, 7947-7954. Vitamin K induces osteoblast differentiation through pregnane X receptor-mediated transcriptional control of the Msx2 gene. 2007

Igarashi, M., Yogiashi, Y., Mihara, M., Takada, I., Kitagawa, H. and Kato, S.

Notes: Igarashi et al. showed that expression of the Msx2 gene, which enodes a transcription factor, is induced by vitamin K treatment via a pregnane X receptor response element (PXRE) and by estrogen via an estrogen response element (ERE). Promoter analysis was performed by cloning the Msx2 promoters into the pGL3-Basic Vector, transfecting MC3T3 and ST2 cells with the pGL3-Basic constructs, treating the cell with 10nM 17β-estradiol and 10µM vitamin K, then measuring luciferase activity. The pRL-CMV Vector (2.5ng per well of a 12-well plate) was cotransfected to normalize for transfection efficiency. The ability of PXR to bind to the Msx2-PXRE was assessed by an avidin-biotin complex DNA assay. Sense and antisense oligonucleotides that were biotinylated at the 5´ end were annealed and immobilized with the TetraLink™ Tetrameric Avidin Resin. HEK293T cells were lysed with lysis buffer (10mM Tris-HCl [pH7.8], 1mM EDTA, 150mM NaCl, 0.1% NP-40) containing protease inhibitors, then centrifuged to clarify the extract. The supernatants were mixed with the DNA-TetraLink™ Resin to allow proteins to bind to the oligos, and resin was washed with lysis buffer. Bound proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. (3805)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, 6640–6652. Brn-3b enhances the pro-apoptotic effects of p53 but not its induction of cell cycle arrest by cooperating in trans-activation of bax expression. 2006

Budhram-Mahadeo, V.S., Bowen, S., Lee, S., Perez-Sanchez, C., Ensor, E., Morris, P.J. and Latchman, D.S.

Notes: Previously, the POU domain of Brn-3a was shown to interact with p53 and increase cell survival. In this article, the authors explored the possibility that Brn-3b, which shares a POU domain 95% identical to Brn-3a, may interact with p53 and affect its role in apoptosis. To test the protein:protein interaction, GST-Brn-3b fusion protein was bound to glutathione Sepharose beads and incubated with 35S-methionine labeled full-length or truncated p53, prepared using the TNT® T7 rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The luciferase control included in the kit was used as the noninteracting protein control. After washing, the bound proteins were resolved by 12% SDS-PAGE, and the bands examined by radiography. To examine the effect of Brn-3b on two p53-regulated genes, Bax and p21cip1/waf1, ND7 cells were transiently transfected with empty vector, Brn-3b, Brn-3a or p53, or Brn-3 with p53. The reporter gene cotransfected was under the control of wildtype Bax, wildtype p21cip1/waf1, or mutant Bax. A control vector (Renilla luciferase driven by the thymidine kinase promoter) was used for normalization. Forty-eight hours posttransfection, the cells were harvested and reporter levels assessed using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (3597)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, e107. Identification of miRNA targets with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. 2006

Vinther, J., Hedegaard, M.M., Gardner, P.P., Andersen, J.S. and Arctander, P.

Notes: These authors used stable-isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC), a method that allows quantitation of relative protein abundance between populations, to investigate the effect of the microRNA miRNA-1 on the HeLa cell proteome. HeLa cells grown in the presence of labeled arginine and lysine were transfected with miRNA-1, and the labeled proteins compared to those from control cells treated with the transfection reagent alone. A set of 16 proteins repressed by miRNA-1 was identified. The 3´ UTR's from 11 of the miRNA-1-regulated genes were tested in a reporter assay, and 6 were shown to repress expression in an miRNA-1-dependent fashion. For the reporter assays, the HSV TK promoter was amplified from the pRL-TK Vector and subcloned into the pGL4.12(luc2CP) Vector, creating the pGL4.12-TK vector. The 3´ UTR regions from suspected target genes were then amplified and subcloned into the pGL4.12-TK construct. The various pGL4.12-TK constructs (0.9µg) were then co-transfected along with pRL-TK (0.1µg) and miRNA-1 (50pmol) into HeLa cells (80,000 cells/well in 12-well plates). Twenty-two hours post-transfection, firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (3561)

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FEBS Lett. 580, 755-762. Interferon regulatory factor-1 is prerequisite to the constitutive expression and IFN-gamma-induced upregulation of B7-H1 (CD274). 2006

Lee, S.J., Jang, B.C., Lee, S.W., Yang, Y.I., Suh, S.I., Park, Y.M., Oh, S., Shin, J.G., Yao, S., Chen, L. and Choi, I.H.

Notes: Many cancer cells upregulate the co-signaling molecule B7-H1, confering resistance to anti-tumor immunity. The ability of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) to upregulate B7-H1 expression was characterized by cloning fragments of the B7-H1 promoter upstream of the firefly luciferase reporter gene in the pGL3-Basic Vector and monitoring luciferase expression using the Dual Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. Firefly luciferase measurements were normalized using Renilla luciferase (pRL-CMV Vector). Putative IRF-1 binding sites in the B7-H1 promoter were identified using the Gel Shift Assay System. RT-PCR was used to examine B7-H1 mRNA levels in interferon-γ-treated or untreated A549 cells exposed to various concentrations of IRF-1 siRNA. cDNA synthesis was performed with the ImProm-II™ Reverse Transcription System. (3451)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 4934-4348. Platelet-derived growth factor BB induces nuclear export and proteasomal degradation of CREB via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. 2006

Garat, C.V., Fankell, D., Erickson, P.F., Reusch, J.E.-B., Bauer, N.N., McMurty, I.F., and Klemm, D.J.

Notes: cAMP/PKA signaling appears to be involved in restraining cell proliferation in healthy pulmonary arteries. Expression of CREB, a transcription factor that is a primary target of PKA activity, is decreased in proliferating smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of pulmonary arteries. This study investigated the regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that determine the levels of CREB in SMCs. Pulmonary arteries were harvested from adult rat lungs, and SMCs were obtained and cultured. SMCs at passages 1-8 were used for studies. Proliferation of the SMCs was measured using the CellTiter® 96 AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. Total and PDGF-stimulated PKA and PKC activities were measured using in the PepTag® Non-Radioactive cAMP-Dependent and PKC Protein Kinase Assays. SMCs transfected with a plasmid containing a CREB-responsive promoter linked to the firefly luciferase gene were treated with PDGF or inhibitors. As a control, cells were cotransfected with a Renilla luciferase reporter plasmid. A Dual-Luciferase® Assay was performed to determine CREB transcriptional activity. (3485)

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J. Biol. Chem. 281, 2044–2052. Proline oxidase, a proapoptotic gene, is induced by troglitazone: evidence for both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent and -independent mechanisms. 2006

Pandhare, J., Cooper, S.K. and Phang, J.M.

Notes: A proline oxidase (POX) antisense vector was generated by amplifying part of the POX cDNA and ligating the product into the pCI Mammalian Expression Vector in the antisense orientation. This construct was tested and validated for blocking POX mRNA expression using RT-PCR. Both PPARγ and p53 cDNAs were also cloned into the pCI Vector. The human POX promoter sequence was amplified and cloned into the NheI and HindIII sites of the pGL3-Basic Vector to create the POX-Luc reporter construct. Using several colon cancer cell lines (HT29, LoVo, HCT116, HCT15, RKO, KM12, HCC2998 and SW620), the POX-Luc construct was co-transfected with pRL-null (to normalize transfection efficiency) plus PPARγ, p53 contructs or empty vector. A PPARγ ligand was added 10 hours post-transfection and cells harvested 24–36 hours after transfection. POX promoter luciferase activity was measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System and a TD-20/20 luminometer. (3514)

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Mol. Cell 22, 553-560. Recapitulation of short RNA-directed translational gene silencing in vitro. 2006

Wang, B., Love, T.M., Call, M.E., Doench, J.G. and Novina, C.D.

Notes: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous short RNAs that repress gene expression. To assess miRNA-directed translational silencing, in vitro reactions were performed. Translational gene silencing by miRNAs in vitro requires target mRNAs to possess a 7-methyl G cap and a poly(A) tail. In vitro transcription was performed with 5μg of linearized plasmids containing zero, two, four, or six miCXCR4 binding sites, one siCXCR4 binding site or Renilla luciferase (pRL-TK; control mRNA) using the RiboMax™ T7 Large-Scale RNA Production kit. The mRNAs were modified by 7-methyl-G capping and polyadenylation. Translation was performed using nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysate containing 0.025pmole of mRNA with miCXCR4 or siCXCR4 binding sites, 0.025pmole Renilla control RNA, and different ratios of CXCR4 siRNA. Reaction products were separated by SDS-PAGE and visualized and quantitated by PhosphorImager analysis. (3412)

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J. Immunol. 176, 5519-5528. Reduced nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) promoter activity in the Syrian hamster renders the animal functionally deficient in NOS2 activity and unable to control an intracellular pathogen. 2006

Perez, L.E., Chandrasekar, B., Saldarriaga, O.A., Zhao, W., Arteaga, L.T., Travi, B.L. and Melby, P.C.

Notes: Leishmania donovani infection elicits an immune response in mice macrophages that includes the upregulation of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2). Hamster and human macrophages do not exhibit an upregulation of NOS2 upon infection. The authors measured the activities of the NOS2 promoter in response to interferon-γ (IFNγ) and lipopolysaccharide treatment of mouse, hamster and human macrophages. The mouse, hamster and human NOS2 promoters were cloned into pGL3-Basic Vector and transfected into mouse macrophages by electroporation. Promoter activities were determined using the Dual Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. The pRL-null Vector was used to normalize for differences in transfection efficiency (3470)

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J. Biol. Chem. 281, 14691–14699. Regulation of Aurora-A kinase gene expression via GABP recruitment of TRAP220/MED1. 2006

Udayakumar, T.S., Belakavadi, M., Choi, K.H., Pandey, P.K. and Fondell, J.D.

Notes: TRAP220/MED1 is amplified in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells and has been shown to interact with a number of transcription factors essential for cell growth and development including BRCA-1 and p53. TRAP220/MED1 is a subunit of the TRAP/Mediator coactivator complex. These authors used RNA interference to reduce TRAP220/MED1 expression by >90%, then microarray analysis to identify genes that were downregulated after TRAP220/MED1 depletion. One such gene was Aurora-A serine/threonine kinase. The authors created Aurora-A-firefly luciferase constructs to determine the effect of TRAP220/MED1 depletion on Aurora-A promoter activity. As a positive control, the authors used a thyroid hormone (T3)-responsive firefly luciferase construct to show that depletion of TRAP220/MED1, which is known to play a role in nuclear receptor-mediated gene activation, interferes with thyroid hormone receptor-mediated activation of T3-responsive genes. Luciferase reporter gene activity was measured using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System, and results were normalized to Renilla luciferase expression from the pRL-TK Vector. (3607)

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J. Immunol. 176, 5050–5059. Substance P stimulates cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression through JAK-STAT activation in human colonic epithelial cells. 2006

Koon, H.W., Zhao, D., Zhan, Y., Rhee, S.H., Moyer, M.P. and Pothoulakis, C.

Notes: To examine the effect of Substance P (SP) on COX-2 expression, the COX-2 promoter region spanning –2069 to –66 bp was cloned by PCR and subcloned into the pGL3-Basic Vector (pGL3-Cox-2). Nontransformed human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells overexpressing neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R; NCM460-NK-1R) were seeded in 12-well plates and transiently transfected with pGL3-Cox-2 with either a transfection control pRL-TK Vector or siRNA or both. The siRNA molecules used were for AK1, JAK2 (Upstate Biotechnology), STAT3, STAT5, STAT6 or a control siRNA. The transfected cells were serum starved for 24 hours, treated with SP for 4 hours and then lysed. The cell extracts were measured for firefly and Renilla luciferase activities using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. Relative luciferase activity was a ratio of COX-2 promoter firefly activity to Renilla activity; results were expressed as percentage of control group without SP stimulation. To mutate the STAT binding elements, the pGL3-Cox-2 construct was modified using the GeneEditor™ in vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis System. The resulting mutant constructs were tested in the same system as the wildtype COX-2 promoter. (3520)

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J. Biol. Chem. 281, 9030-9037. The plasma membrane lactate transporter MCT4, but not MCT1, is up-regulated by hypoxia through a HIF-1alpha-dependent mechanism. 2006

Ullah, M.S., Davies, A.J. and Halestrap, A.P.

Notes: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) transport lactic acid across the cell membrane. The promoters of 4 MCT family members (MCT1, MCT2, MCT3 and MCT4), were amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. The sequences were confirmed, and the promoters were cloned into the pGL3-Basic Vector. The Dual-Glo™ Luciferase Assay System was used to quantitate promoter activity under basal and hypoxic conditions in HeLa cells. The pRL-SV40 Vector was used to normalize for differences in transfection efficiency. (3463)

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J. Biol. Chem. 280, 8994–9004. Notch signaling represses myocardin-induced smooth muscle cell differentiation. 2005

Proweller, A., Pear, W.S. and Parmacek, M.S.

Notes: A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells were transfected with up to four plasmids using FuGENE® 6 transfection reagent with a reagent:DNA ratio of 3:1. The amounts of plasmid DNA were 25ng of a luciferase reporter construct, 5ng of the pRL-TK control vector, 25ng of myocardin expression plasmid, varying amounts of a plasmid encoding a constitutively active Notch intracellular domain or Hairy-related transcription-factor, and enough empty pcDNA3 vector to normalize total DNA concentration in each transfection. 48 hours post-transfection, cells were harvested, and luciferase activities were measured using a dual luciferase assay from Promega. (4276)

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Drug Metab. Dispos. 33, 1244–53. Sp1 and Sp3 regulate basal transcription of the human CYP2F1 gene. 2005

Wan, J., Carr, B.A., Culter, N.S., Lanza, D.L., Hines, R.N. and Yost, G.S.

Notes: The human lung cell line A549 and the human liver cell line were transiently transfected with 0.1µg of CYP2F1 reporter constructs and 0.001µg of pRL-TK Vector using FuGENE® 6 Reagent in 96-well plates. For cotransfection studies, cells were transfected with 0.1µg of the reporter construct, 0.002µg of pRL-TK plasmid, and 0.5 or 0.2µg of Sp1, Sp3 or empty expression vectors, with the total transfected DNA remaining at 0.2µg. Reporter activity was assessed using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System.

SL-2 cells were seeded in 24-well plates and cotransfected with 0.3µg of CYP2F1 reporter plasmid and 0.3µg of pPac/Sp1, pPac/Sp2 or empty expression vector. The total amount of plasmid DNA used for each transfection was 0.9µg. The DNA and FuGENE® 6 were added at a 3:1 ratio. Activities were assessed using the Dual- Luciferase® Reporter Assay System.

The Gel Shift Assay System was used to identify Sp1-like sites in the promoter of the human CYP2F1 using EMSA (electromobility shift analysis). (4269)

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J. Biomol. Scr. 10, 1-12. A high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of amyloid beta-protein precursor processing 2005

Bakshi, P., Liao, Y-F., Gao, J., Ni, J., Stein, R., Yeh, L-A., Wolfe, M.S.

Notes: A key component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is cerebral accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (Aβ). Aβ is produced by proteolysis of amyloid-β-protein precursor (APP) by ß- and gamma-secretases, thus these enzymes are considered important drug targets for Alzheimer's disease. Existing assays for assessing inhibition of alpha-, beta- and gamma-secretases include HPLC or ELISA assays that are cumbersome, expensive and not well-suited to high-throughput screening. The authors developed a luciferase reporter system to identify new molecules that inhibit APP processing. They then successfully interfaced this sensitive, specific and quantitative assay with a high-throughput screen, useful for identifying both inhibitors and stimulators of APP processing. (3775)

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J. Biol. Chem. 280, 19977-19985. A novel Myc-target gene, mimitin, that is involved in cell proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. 2005

Tsuneoka, M., Teye, K., Arima, N., Soejima, M., Otera, H., Ohashi, K., Koga, Y., Fujita, H., Shirouzu, K., Kimura, H. and Koda, Y.

Notes: The authors used 5´ and 3´RACE to amplify the gene mimitin, and the resulting cDNA was cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. A genomic DNA fragment containing the mimitin promoter sequence was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. The promoter was then cloned into the pGL3-Basic Vector. The activity of the wildtype and mutated promoters was determined using a luciferase assay. The pRL CMV Vector was used to normalize for differences in transfection efficiency. (3466)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12759-12764. Biological function of the vaccinia virus Z-DNA-binding protein E3L: gene transactivation and antiapoptotic activity in HeLa cells. 2005

Kwon, J.A. and Rich, A.

Notes: The host gene E3L is required for vaccinia virus infection and has anti-apoptosis activity. The authors examine the ability of E3L to regulate transcription of several genes related to apoptosis, immune response and viral pathogenesis. IL-6, NF-AT, p53, NF-κB, Ap-1 and cAMP response elements were cloned upstream of a TATA box and the firefly luciferase reporter gene. Renilla luciferase (pRL-null Vector) was used to normalize for transfection efficiency. Luciferase activities were measured using the Dual Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. The authors also show that the Z-DNA binding region of E3L is important for transcriptional regulation. HeLa cells were transfected with an expression vectors expressing full-length E3L, E3L with a deletion of the Z-DNA binding domain or E3L with point mutations in residues important for Z-DNA binding. The AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System was used to quantitate IL-6, NF-AT and p53 mRNAs; β-actin was used as a control for RNA input. (3452)

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Eukaryot. Cell 4, 1539-1549. Dual-luciferase assay system for rapid assessment of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 2005

McNabb, D.S., Reed, R., and Marciniak, R.A.

Notes: The firefly and Renilla luciferase coding regions were amplified from the pGL3 and pRL-CMV Vectors and cloned into various yeast expression vectors. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were transformed with these constructs and analyzed with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. The authors created yeast lysates for the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System using 1X Passive Lysis Buffer. Several factors important to assay performance as well as firefly and Renilla luciferase expression were explored, including the stability of both luciferases stored in lysates at room temperature for various periods of time, optimal culture density before lysis of transformants and the firefly luciferase half-life in S. cerevisiae. (3298)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 6031–46. Reciprocal transcriptional regulation of Pou5f1 and Sox2 via the Oct4/Sox2 complex in embryonic stem cells. 2005

Chew, J.L., Loh, Y.H., Zhang, W., Chen, X., Tam, W.L., Yeap, L.S., Li, P., Ang, Y.S., Lim, B., Robson, P. and Ng, H.H.

Notes: The authors studied the effects of Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC)-specific regulation on the Pou5f1 promoter in human and mouse cells. To examine the effect of knockdown of Oct4 and Sox2 (two genes involved in ESC regulation) on the Pou5f1 promoter, a 3kb fragment of the human POU5F1 promoter was cloned into pGL3-Basic Vector and 100ng cotransfected with 100ng shRNA plasmids into mouse E14 ESCs. Five nanograms of pRL-SV40 Vector served as a transfection control. For the enhancer assay, a 461bp fragment of genomic DNA containing the SRR2 enhancer of Sox2 was amplified and cloned into the pGL3-Promoter Vector. The same amounts of plasmid, shRNA and transfection control were transfected into E14 ESCs as in the Pou5f1 promoter assay. To investigate gene knockdown in 293T cells, 5ng of the two open reading frame (ORF) constructs (the Luc-Sox2 and the Luc-Pou5f1 ORFs cloned into the psiCHECK™-2 Vector) were cotransfected with 100ng shRNA plasmid. The outcome was examined 48–60 hours post-transfection using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (3291)

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J. Biol. Chem. 280, 38029–38034. Regulation of Oxidative Stress by the Anti-aging Hormone Klotho 2005

Yamamoto, M., Clark, J.D., Pastor, J.V., Gurnani, P., Nandi, A., Kurosu, H., Miyoshi, M., Ogawa, Y., Castrillon, D.H., Rosenblatt, K.P. and Kuro-o, M.

Notes: Mice that overexpress Klotho exhibit an extended lifespan and delayed aging. In this study, the authors show that Klotho protein protects against oxidative stress and activates the FoxO transcription factors, inducing expression of manganese superoxide dismutase. Two luciferase constructs were made, one with luciferase under the control of the Fas ligand promoter and one under the control of the human SOD2 promoter. HeLa cells were transfected with one of the two luciferase constructs and the pRL-CMV Renilla control vector. Transfected cells were treated with or without Klotho protein, and cell lysates were analyzed using the Dual-Luciferase® Assay. Klotho protein stimulated the activity of the Fas ligand gene promoter and the SOD2 promoter. (3667)

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Blood 105, 4685-4692. Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) negatively regulates TLR4-mediated LPS response primarily through a phosphatase activity- and PI-3K-independent mechanism. 2005

An, H., Xu, H., Zhang, M., Zhou, J., Feng, T., Qian, C., Qi, R. and Cao, X.

Notes: The authors of this study investigated the role of Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response. RAW264.7 macrophages were transfected with wildtype or mutant SHIP1 or control plasmid. Anti-ACTIVE® JNK and p38 antibodies were used in Western analyses to determine phosphorylation of these kinases in response to overexpression of SHIP1 or mutant SHIP1. To investigate any effects on IκB-alpha and NF-κB expression, RAW264.7 macrophages were cotransfected with pGL3-XκB-luciferase reporter plasmid and pRL-TK Renilla luciferase control plasmid. Transfected cells were treated with LPS for 6 hours or left untreated (control). The Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System was used to monitor reporter gene expression. (3524)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 33, 4285-4310. Transcription factor binding sites in the pol gene intragenic regulatory region of HIV-1 are important for viral infectivity. 2005

Goffin, V., Demonté, D., Vanhulle, C., de Walque, S., de Launoit, Y., Burny, A., Collette, Y., Van Lint, C.

Notes: A fragment containing HIV-1 LAI 5' LTR was cloned into the unique EcoICRI-XhoI site of the pGL3-Basic Reporter Vector. The Luciferase Reporter Assay was used to analyze DNA transfected cells for luciferase activity. The pRL-TK Vector was used as a transfection efficiency internal control with a Renilla cDNA under control of HSV-TK. Firefly luciferase activity derived from the HIV-1 LTR was normalized to the Renilla luciferase activities using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay. (3703)

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J. Nutr. 135, 2987S-2992S. Zingiberaceous and citrus constituents, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, zerumbone, auraptene, and nobiletin, suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages through different modes of action. 2005

Murakami, A., Shigemori, T. and Ohigashi, H.

Notes: These authors investigated the mechanisms by which anti-carcinogenic compounds derived from Japanese and subtropical vegetables and fruits attenuate LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA expression in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Using Western blot analysis, 10µg nuclear or 20µg cytosolic protein fractions isolated from LPS-treated macrophages in the absence or presence of various phytochemicals were stained with several antibodies for signal pathway proteins, including the Anti-ERK1/2 pAb. Further analysis of the MAPK and NF-κB systems was performed using firefly luciferase constructs co-transfected with the control pRL-TK Vector at a 1:1 ratio. Transfected cells were exposed to the plant compound for 12 hours and then to LPS for a further 12 hours. Reporter activity was measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. To determine the effect of the phytochemical zerumbone on the kinase reaction, a cell-free kinase assay was performed using Kinase-Glo® Assay System. In this assay, 1.5µl recombinant MAPKAPK-2, 0.2µl recombinant active p38α, 1µl zerumbone and 4µmol/l ATP were incubated for 3 hours at 28°C before addition of an equal volume of Kinase-Glo® Reagent. (3333)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97(12), 6597-6602. Adaptive variation in lactate dehydrogenase-B gene expression: role of a stress-responsive regulatory element. 2004

Schulte, P.M., Glemet, H.C., Fiebig, A.A. and Powers, D.A.

Notes: The research in this article describes differences in the regulatory region of the lactate dehydrogenase-B (Ldh-B ) gene between isolates of Fundulus heteroclitus. To study Ldh-B regulation, 5’ regulatory sequences were cloned from isolates that live at different temperatures. These sequences were subsequently cloned upstream of the firefly luciferase gene. Between 10-60μg of this construct and 5μg of pRL-CMV Vector in physiological saline were injected directly into the liver of the fish using tempera paint as an injection indicator. Seven days after injection, the livers were removed and homogenized with a Polytron homogenizer in Passive Lysis Buffer. The lysate was cleared twice at 10,000 x g for 15 minutes and then stored frozen for 24 hours before being used in the Dual Luciferase® Assay. (3068)

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J. Immunol. 172, 5512–5521. Human CD1D gene has TATA boxless dual promoters: An SP1-binding element determines the function of the proximal promoter. 2004

Chen, Q.Y. and Jackson, N.

Notes: These authors demonstrated that the human CD1D gene has distal and proximal TATA boxless promoter sequences. Distal and proximal promoters to CD1D were cloned into the pGL3-Basic Vector to create reporter constructs. One construct contained the entire 4,986 base pair region containing distal and proximal CD1D promoter.  Transient transfections were performed using 5 x 105 Jurkat cells in 24-well plates, 0.8 μg of pGL3 Basic Vector with the insert of interest, and 30ng of pRL-CMV Vector as a transfection normalization control. The Dual-Glo™ Luciferase Assay System was used to assay luciferase activities.  (3061)

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