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In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 33(4), 315-323. Cytolytic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIC and CryIAc toxins to Spodoptera sp. midgut epithelial cells in vitro. 1997

Wang, S. and McCarthy, W.J.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to measure the cytolytic activity of bacterial toxins on cell lines and primary cultures of midgut epithelial cells from Spodoptera sp. insects. The LDH assay conditions were optimized for studying insect cell cytotoxicity. (1757)

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Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 273, F530-F537. Heat shock-induced protection and enhancement of Na+-glucose cotransport by LLC-PK1 monolayers 1997

Sussman, C.R., Renfro, J.L.

Notes: The CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay System was used to demonstrate that mild heat shock (42°C for 3hr) and severe heat shock (45° for 1hr) did not cause cytotoxicity of LLC-PK1 porcine renal epithelial cells. Cells under the heat shock conditions release approximately 1% of maximal LDH. (0323)

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J. Biol. Chem. 272(6), 3550-3553. Inhibition of p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor by antisense oligonucleotides increases hypoxic injury and beta-amyloid toxicity in human neuronal cell line. 1997

Shen, Y., Li, R., and Shiosaki, K.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to measure the cytotoxicity of human neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cells. The authors demonstrated that inhibition of p75 TNFR using antisense oligonucleotides increases the cytotoxicity of neurotypic cells to hypoxic injury, TNFalpha, and beta-Amyloid treatments. (1753)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9412-9416. Inhibition of the electrostatic interaction between β-amyloid peptide and membranes prevents β-amyloid-induced toxicity. 1997

Hertel, C., Terzi, E., Hauser, N., Jakob-Rotne, R., Seelig, J., Kemp, J.A.

Notes: The CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to examine the LDH released from PC12 cells treated with β-amyloid peptides. The LDH measurements were performed with cell supernatants that also had been used for an MTT cell proliferation assay. (1040)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94(17), 9412-9416. Inhibition of the electrostatic interaction between beta-amyloid peptide and membranes prevents beta-amyloid-induced toxicity. 1997

Hertel, C., Terzi, E., Hauser, N., Jakob-Rotne, R., Seelig, J., and Kemp, J.A.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to measure LDH release from rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells treated with beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta). The authors demonstrated Abeta peptides increase the sensitivity of cells to insults such as MTT formazan formation and that phloretin decreases the susceptibility of the plasma membrane to damage induced by Abeta peptide. (1742)

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J. Biol. Chem. 272, 25941-25950. Lipid peroxidation is involved in the activation of NF-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor but not interleukin-1 in the human endothelial cell line ECV304. Lack Of involvement of H2O2 in NF-kappaB activation by either cytokine in both primary and transformed endothelial cells. 1997

Bowie, A.G., Moynagh, P.N. and O'Neill, L.A.J.

Notes: Various compounds were tested on ECV304 human endothelial cells and Jurkat cells. The CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to ensure that the test compounds did not cause cytotoxicity. Authors report that N-acetyl L-cysteine interferes with the system and could not be used with this treatment. (2241)

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J. Biol. Chem. 272, 6972-6978. Lipoxin A4 stable analogs are potent mimetics that stimulate human monocytes and THP-1 cells via a G-protein-linked lipoxin A4 receptor. 1997

Maddox, J.F., Hachicha, M., Takano, T., Petasis, N.A., Fokin, V.V. , Serhan, C.N.

Notes: THP-1 cells were the targets of monocytes activated with a number of different substances and monitored with the CytoTox 96® Cytotoxicity Assay to monitor LDH release. (0721)

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J. Exp. Med. 186, 1241-1246. Mycobacterium tuberculosis chaperonin 10 stimulates bone resorption: A potential contributory factor in Pott's disease. 1997

Meghji, S., White, P.A., Nair, S.P., Reddi, K., Heron, K., Henderson, B., Zaliani, A., Fossati, G., Mascagni, P., Hunt, J.F., Roberts, M.M., Coates, A.R.M.

Notes: The Cytotox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to monitor the cytotoxicity of the human osteoblast-like cell line , MG63, to peptides derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis chaperonin 10 protein. (0717)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1160-1165. Novel pyridinium surfactants for efficient, nontoxic in vitro gene delivery. 1997

van der Woude, I. , Wagenaar, A. , Meekel, A. A. , ter Beest, M. B. , Ruiters, M. H. , Engberts, J. B. , Hoekstra, D.

Notes: The Cytotox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity (LDH release) of COS-7 SV40-transformed monkey kidney cells with regard to lipid-based transfection reagents. (0217)

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J. Biol. Chem. 272, 33245-33254. Reversible disruption of cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions by overexpression of sialomucin complex. 1997

Komatsu, M., Carraway, C.A.C., Fregien, N.L., Carraway, K.L.

Notes: The CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used as a sensitive assay of cell adhesion. Adhesive cells were lysed in a Triton® X-100 solution and the lysates assayed for LDH activity. (0878)

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Anal. Biochem. 234(1), 56-59. An in vitro test system for thyroid hormone action. 1996

Hohenwarter, O., Waltenberger, A. and Katinger, H.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used in conjunction with MTT and DNA quantitation to monitor the growth of the rat pituitary tumor cell line GH3 treated with thyroid hormones. (1743)

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Toxicology 106(1-3), 187-96. Benzoyl peroxide cytotoxicity evaluated in vitro with the human keratinocyte cell line, RHEK-1. 1996

Babich, H., Zuckerbraun, H.L., Wurzburger, B.J., Rubin, Y.L., Borenfreund, E. and Blau, L.

Notes: Authors investigated in a variety of parameters the toxicity of benzol peroxide on a nontumorigenic human epidermal keratinocyte RHEK-1 cell line. Membrane integrity (LDH release measured using the CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay) was studied following brief exposure to these compounds. (1734)

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Pharmacol. Toxicol. 78(6), 397-403. Cytotoxicity of sanguinarine chloride to cultured human cells from oral tissue. 1996

Babich, H., Zuckerbraun, H.L., Barber, I.B., Babich, S.B., Borenfreund, E.

Notes: Investigators used the CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay to look at the effect of sanguinarine chloride on membrane integrity in variety of cell lines and primary cells from oral human tissue. Human cell lines tested were Smulow-Glickman (S-G), HGF-1 gingival fibroblasts and the KB human carcinoma cell line. (2911)

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J. Immunol. Methods 196(2), 175-180. Improved protocol for colorimetric detection of complement-mediated cytotoxicity based on the measurement of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase activity. 1996

Sepp, A., Binns, R.M., and Lechler, R.I.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to measure complement-mediated cytotoxicity with COS-7 and pig kidney PK15 cells. Instead of measuring the LDH released from the injured cells, they quantified the amount of LDH activity retained in the undamaged cells. (1752)

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FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 142(2-3), 231-235. In vivo and in vitro analysis of Bordetella pertussis catalase and Fe-superoxide dismutase mutants. 1996

Khelef, N., DeShazer, D., Friedman, R.L., and Guiso, N.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to monitor the lysis of J774A.1 macrophages infected with various strains of Bordetella pertussis. (1745)

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J. Clin. Invest. 98, 443-450. Sequence-independent inhibition of in vitro vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and in vivo neointimal formation by phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides 1996

Wang, W., Chen, H.J., Schwartz, A., Cannon, P.J., Stein, C.A., Rabbani, L.E.

Notes: The effect of the phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide S-dC28 on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in the presence or absence of PDGF was assessed using the CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. Additionally, LDH release was monitored using the CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay to determine if S-dC28 was directly cytotoxic to vascular smooth muscle cells. (2549)

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J. Immunol. Methods 185(2), 209-216. A versatile flow cytometry-based assay for the determination of short- and long-term natural killer cell activity. 1995

Johann, S., Blumel, G., Lipp, M., and Forster, R.

Notes: In describing their modifications for a fluorescent dye label cytotoxicity assay, the authors compared it to Promega's CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay. With 4 hour NK activity experiments, the results (% cytoxicity) obtained by flow cytometry agreed well with the results obtained by the CytoTox 96® Assay. They also investigated extended periods of incubation, because in some domestic animal models, NK activity requires an overnight incubation for lysis to occur. For long assays (16-20 hours of co-culture), there were instances when the LDH assay did not give meaningful data. In particular, PBMLs isolated from some individual animals yielded a high proportion of porcine PBML cells that died during this overnight assay. However, certain experiments were successful (better PBML overnight survival) and good correlation was observed with the CytoTox 96® Assay and their flow cytometry assay. (1744)

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J. Virol. 69(9), 5666-76. Cytotoxic T cells are elicited during acute infection of mice with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus but disappear during the chronic phase of infection. 1995

Even, C., Rowland, R.R. and Plagemann, P.G.

Notes: Authors used the CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay to measure cytolytic activity of expanded CTLs on LDV-infected macrophages. They indicate previous problems in measuring lysis of LDV infected macrophages by conventional 51Cr release. Evidently there isn't enough time to label the cells following virus infection before the cells die. Also, because the macrophages are extremely difficult to culture, they wanted to maintain assay conditions in the presence of 10% FBS. To decrease the culture medium background, they surveyed various lots of fetal bovine serum, contacted the manufacturer and ultimately chose a particular lot with low endogenous LDH. (1739)

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Toxicol. Lett. 75(1-3), 101-109. Oxidative stress aspects of the cytotoxicity of carbamide peroxide: in vitro studies. 1995

Sinensky, M.C., Leiser, A.L. and Babich, H.

Notes: The authors investigated the toxicity of carbamide peroxide in a variety of cell types by various parameters, including LDH release. The article includes data showing toxicity with human Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells quantitated by LDH release (CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay). (1755)

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Toxicol. Lett. 75(1-3), 101-109. Oxidative stress aspects of the cytotoxicity of carbamide peroxide: in vitro studies. 1995

Sinensky, M.C., Leiser, A.L., Babich, H.

Notes: The CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to assay carbamide peroxide mediated cytotoxicity. (2980)

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Biotechnol. Ther. 5(3-4), 117-126. Pycnogenol protects vascular endothelial cells from t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidant injury. 1995

Rong, Y., Li, L., Shah, V. and Lau, B.H.S.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to investigate the protective effects of an antioxidant (pycnogenol) on oxidant (t-butyl hydroperoxide) induced injury of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Cellular injury was assessed both by determining release of LDH using the CytoTox 96® Assay System and by measuring cell viability using MTT. (1751)

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J. Immunol. Methods 171(2), 259-262. A highly sensitive non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay for human target cells. 1994

Franke, L. and Porstmann, T.

Notes: These authors describe a SURALISA as a rapid, easy, and highly sensitive assay to quantify Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase released from damaged cells into the supernatant. The specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used, which react exclusively with human SOD, prevent binding of bovine SOD present in FCS. The authors compared their system to the CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay ONLY on the basis of single cell lysis and looked at sensitivity and background values (i.e., they did not perform cell-mediated cytotoxicity experiments in this technical note). (1741)

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Society of Neuroscience Abstracts 20, Abstract 672.4. Characterization of human serum-induced toxicity in rat primary hippocampal cultures. 1994

Puttfarcken, P.S., et al.

Notes: The CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay was used to study toxicity in hippocampal neurons. (2228)

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Eur. J. Pharmacol. 266(3), R1-3. Expression of NMDAR1-1a (N598Q)/NMDAR2A receptors results in decreased cell mortality. 1994

Cik, M., Chazot, P.L. and Stephenson, F.A.

Notes: A short rapid communication where the authors use the CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay to measure cell death. HEK 293 cells were transfected with various plasmids containing the respective NMDA receptor subunit cDNAs by the calcium phosphate method. (1738)

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Cell 77(6), 817-27. Hydrogen peroxide mediates amyloid beta protein toxicity. 1994

Behl, C., Davis, J.B., Lesley, R. and Schubert, D.

Notes: Using a PC-12 clone, the authors assessed Beta toxicity by three assays; MTT reduction, LDH release (CytoTox® 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay) and visual counting with trypan blue. Research focuses on antioxidant activity on the amyloid beta protein which accumulates in the central nervous system in Alzheimer's disease. Please note that these authors did not use the CytoTox 96® Assay for cell-mediated cytotoxicity, however it is an interesting article looking at mechanisms of toxicity. (1736)

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