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J. Neurosci. 18, 1337-1344. Preconditioning with bright light evokes a protective response against light damage in the rat retina. 1998

Liu, C., Peng, M., Laties, A.M., and Wen, R.

Notes: Exposure to bright light induces photoreceptor degeneration in the retina and over time upregulates the expression of neurotrophic factors that protect photoreceptors. Endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor and cilliary neurotrophic factor  appear to play roles in photoreceptor protection while activation of MAP kinase aids in photoreceptor survival. The level of CNTF after exposure to bright light in rat retinas was monitored by Western blot analysis using the Anti-Rat CNTFpAb. The level of MAP Kinase activation was determined by Western blot analysis to detect with dually phosphorylated forms of MAP kinase with the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb, Rabbit, (pTEpY) (2374)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 27170-27175. Purinergic receptor modulation of lipopolysaccharide signaling and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. 1998

Hu, Y., Fisette, P.L., Denlinger, L.C., Guadarrama, A.G., Sommer, J.A., Proctor, R.A., Bertics, P.J.

Notes: The authors used Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb for Western analysis on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages to determine the effect of o-ATP on LPS-induced activation of MAPK. (1023)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 26323-26329. Rapid mechanotransduction in situ at the luminal cell surface of vascular endothelium and its caveolae. 1998

Rizzo, V., Sung, A., Oh, P., Schnitzer, J.E.

Notes: Rat lungs were perfused at 10ml/min with MES-buffered saline. At various times, the lungs were collected, homogenized and analyzed by Western blotting. The perfusion caused an increase in MAPK activation in 3min. The activation was monitored with the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb. The amount of activation was quantified by densitometry. (0481)

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Hypertension 32, 1003-1010. Reactive oxygen species are critical in the oleic acid-mediated mitogenic signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. 1998

Lu, G., Greene, E.L., Nagai, T., Egan, B.M.

Notes: Used Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb for Western analysis on extracts from rat aortic smooth muscle cells treated with various combinations of oleic acid (inducer of reactive oxygen species) and N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant). (0747)

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Development 125, 4777-90. Regulation of EGF receptor signaling establishes pattern across the developing Drosophila retina. 1998

Spencer, S.A., Powell, P.A., Miller, D.T., and Cagan, R.L.

Notes: The mechanism through which individual cells are directed to their correct positions in developing epithelia was studied by examining the spacing of ommatidia across the developing Drosophila retina. Eye imaginal discs were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, permeabilized in 0.3% Triton® X-100 and stained overnight at 4°C with the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb (1:500 dilution). Western blot analysis was performed on tissue homogenates from third instar eye/antennal discs and brains with the same antibody. Proteins were transferred to PVDF membranes following SDS-PAGE, and incubated with a 1:5000 dilution of Anti-ACTIVE MAPK pAb. (2395)

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Genes Dev. 12(18), 2887-2982. Repression of yeast Ste12 transcription factor by direct binding of unphosphorylated Kss1 MAPK and its regulation by the Ste7 MEK. 1998

Bardwell, L., Cook, J.G., Voora, D., Baggott, D.M., Martinez, A.R. and Thorner, J.

Notes: Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb was used to detect phosphorylated yeast (S. cerevisiae) MAPK, Kss1, in Western blot analysis. The antibody was used in a 1:1300 dilution with an overnight incubation at 4 degrees. (2168)

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Mol. Endocrinol. 12, 1002-1009. Serotonergic repression of mitogen-activated protein kinase control of the calcitonin gene-related peptide enhancer. 1998

Durham, P.L. and Russo, A.F.

Notes: The Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb was used in Westerns at a 1:5000 dilution to probe CA77 rat medullar thyroid carcinoma cell line lysates. The researchers also used the Anti-ACTIVE®-Qualified HRP conjugated Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG at a 1:10,000 dilution. (1207)

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Am. J. Physiol. 274, C221-C228. Signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis by insulin in L6 myoblasts. 1998

Kimball, S.R., Horetsky, R.L., Jefferson, L.S.

Notes: The authors used the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb for immunoblots with L6 myoblasts. (0900)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 8773-8778. Signaling pathways in Ras-mediated tumorigenicity and metastasis. 1998

Webb, C. P. , Van Aelst, L. , Wigler, M. H. , Woude, G. F.

Notes: The authors used Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb for Western analysis to determine the activation state of MAPK in NIH3T3 cells transfected with various effector domain mutants of oncogenic ras. (0172)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 19277-19282. Stimulation of p38 phosphorylation and activity by arachidonic acid in HeLa cells, HL60 promyelocytic leukemic cells and human neutrophils. 1998

Hii, C.S.T., Huang, Z.H., Bilney, A., Costabile, M., Murray, A.W., Rathjen, D.A., Der, C.J. , Ferrante, A.

Notes: The Anti-ACTIVE® p38 pAb was used for Western blots to follow the activation of p38 in HeLa cells, HL60 cells and human neutrophils following treatment with arachidonic acid. (1043)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 30770-30776. The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel alpha-subunit is transcriptionally down-regulated in rat parotid cells by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway. 1998

Zentner, M. D. , Lin, H. H. , Wen, X. , Kim, K. J. , Ann, D. K.

Notes: The Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb was used to determine the extent of activation of Erk pathway through western analysis of extracts from rat parotid epithelial cells (Pa-4) following treatment with TPA. (0085)

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J. Biol. Chem. 273, 19909-19913.. The MEK1 proline-rich insert is required for efficient activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in mammalian cells. 1998

Dang, A., Frost, J.A., Cobb, M.H.

Notes: NIH3T3 cells were transfected with MEK1 with and without the polyproline stretch of amino acids. Normal MEK1 with the polyproline insert activated ERK1 and ERK2 as judged by western blotting with the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb but the mutant lacking the polyproline stretch did not. (1252)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15587-15591. The PTEN/MMAC1 tumor suppressor phosphatase functions as a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway 1998

Wu, X., Senechal, K., Neshat, M.S., Whang, Y.E., Sawyers, C.L.

Notes: The Tfx™-50 Reagent was used to transfect LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells. No details of the transfection are provided. Rat-1 cells stably transfected with a retrovirus expressing PTEM/MMC1 or a mutant had no observable difference in ERK 1 and 2 dual phosphorylation as compared to vector only controls. The level of ERK activation was determined by Western blotting with the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb. (0160)

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J. Cell Biol. 137, 433-43. A role for mitogen-activated protein kinase in the spindle assembly checkpoint in XTC cells. 1997

Wang, X.M., Zhai, Y., and Ferrell J.E. Jr

Notes: Cells must pass through a spindle assembly checkpoint before initiating anaphase and leaving mitosis to weed out cells with defective spindles or misaligned chromosomes. The authors provide evidence that MAP kinase functions in the spindle assembly checkpoint  in Xenopus tadpole cells. Cells were exposed to nocodazole, a microtubule depolymerizing agent, for various lengths of time to arrest cells in mitosis. These cells were subjected to Western blot analysis with the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb to determine the level of dually phosphorylated, active MAPK. (2401)

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J. Neurosci. 17, 7252-7266. Action potential-dependent regulation of gene expression: Temporal specificity in Ca2+, cAMP-responsive element binding proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. 1997

Fields, R.D., Eshete, F., Stevens, B. and Itoh, K.

Notes: The Anti-ACTIVE MAPK pAb antibody was used to detect dually-phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2 MAP Kinases by immunoblotting lysates from mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons after exposure to four different action potentials. Densitometry was used to quantify the activation of the MAP Kinases. (1568)

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Am. J. Physiol. 273, C1472-C1479. Cholecystokinin and EGF activate a MAPK cascade by different mechanisms in rat pancreatic acinar cells. 1997

Dabrowski, A. , Groblewski, G. E. , Schafer, C. , Guan, K. L. , Williams, J. A.

Notes: The authors used the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb for immunoblot assays with rat pancreatic acinar cells. (1293)

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J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32686-32695. Divergent signaling capacities of the long and short isoforms of the leptin receptor. 1997

Bjorbaek, C., Uotani, S., da Silva, B. and Flier, J. S.

Notes: In this study, CHO cells were transfected with either the long form or the short form of the leptin receptor. The cells were starved for serum then treated with either serum or leptin. Activation of MAPK was assayed by western blotting using the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb, and quantified by scanning laser densitometry. (1417)

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J. Biol. Chem. 272, 31648-31656. G protein-coupled receptors mediate two functionally distinct pathways of tyrosine phosphorylation in rat 1a fibroblasts. Shc phosphorylation and receptor endocytosis correlate with activation of erk kinases 1997

Luttrell, L.M., Daaka, Y., Della Rocca, G.J., Lefkowitz, R.J.

Notes: Serum starved Rat 1a fibroblasts were stimulated by either lysophosphatidic acid, bombesin or EGF for 0-10min and assayed for MAPK activated by western blotting. Detection of the activated kinase by the Promega Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb was monitored by a phosphoimager. (0755)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 11369-11374. Integration of multiple instructive cues by neural crest stem cells reveals cell-intrinsic biases in relative growth factor responsiveness. 1997

Shah, N.M. and Anderson, D.J.

Notes: Rat neural crest stem cells were treated with glial growth factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein and a combination of the two. Cells were treated for 10, 20 or 60 minutes then directly assayed for MAP kinase activation by immunocytochemistry using Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK Antibody. The percentage of cells stained for Active MAP kinase were quantified by direct counting. A lot of detail is given for the treatment of the cells prior to assay. (1542)

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J. Cell Biol. 139, 1523-1531. Ligation of Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) Class I Molecules on Human T Cells Induces Cell Death through PI-3 Kinase-induced c-Jun NH2- terminal Kinase Activity: A Novel Apoptotic Pathway Distinct from Fas- induced Apoptosis 1997

Skov, S., Klausen, P., Claesson, M. H.

Notes: This study looks at the activation of JNK and MAPK by antibodies to the MHC and Fas ligand of Jurkat cells. Cells were treated then lysed in SDS sample buffer containing 10mM sodium vanadate and detected by western blotting. The treatments mainly activated ERK2 with some activation of ERK1 as detected by the Promega Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb. (0376)

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J. Biol. Chem. 272, 31400-31406. Modulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and function by mitogen-activated protein kinase 1997

De Fea, K. , Roth, R. A.

Notes: 293 cells transfected with insulin receptor substrate-1 were treated with PMA for 20 min then assayed for MAPK activation by western blotting with Promega's Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb, in vitro kinase assays and in-gel kinase assays. 3T3 cells transfected with a chimeric RAF:estrogen receptor were treated with 4-hydroxytamoxifen for 1hr and assayed the same way. Both the in vitro kinase assays and in-gel kinase assays directly correlate with levels of activated MAPK detected by the antibody. (1259)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 13666-13670. Platelet-derived growth factor activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in isolated caveolae. 1997

Liu, P., Ying,Y., Anderson, R.G.W.

Notes: MAPK activation in caveolae and cytosol of normal human fibroblasts following PDGF stimulation were monitored by Western blotting with the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb. MAPK could also be activated in vitro by direct stimulation of isolated caveolae with PDGF. Good detail is provided for membrane isolation and solubilization. (0777)

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J. Exp. Med. 186, 1947-1955. The thrombopoietin receptor can mediate proliferation without activation of the jak-STAT pathway 1997

Dorsch, M. , Fan, P. D. , Danial, N. N. , Rothman, P. B. , Goff, S. P.

Notes: Mutant and wild-type thrombopoietin receptor-expressing BAF/3 cells were serum starved then treated with thrombopoietin. MAPK activation was followed over time using the Anti-ACTIVE® MAPK pAb. Two exposures of the chemiluminescent detection are shown. The membranes were stripped and reprobed with an anti-ERK antibody to show that equal amounts of protein were loaded in each lane. (1242)

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