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J. Immunol. 157(2), 707-713. Requirement of Fas (CD95), CD45, and CD11a/CD18 in monocyte-dependent apoptosis of human T cells. 1996

Wu, M.X., Ao, Z., Hegen, M., Morimoto, C., and Schlossman, S.F.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to quantitate viable cells in co-culture experiments to determine the inhibition of Mo-dependent T cell apoptosis by anti-Fas and other factors. (1721)

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Biomaterials 17(11), 1115-1120. Response of oral mucosal cells to glass ionomer cements. 1996

Lewis, J., Nix, L., Schuster, G., Lefebvre, C., Knoernschild, K. and Caughman, G.

Notes: The authors used the CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay to determine the number of viable oral mucosal cells in tests to measure the effects of components leached out of three glass ionomer cements used as bases and liners for tooth cavity preparations. (2103)

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J. Microbiol. Methods 25, 49-55. Resting-cell dehydrogenase assay measuring a novel water-soluble formazan detects catabolic differences among cells. 1996

Leverone, M.R., Owen, T.C., Tieder, F.S., Stewart, G.J. and Lim, D.V.

Notes: The MTS tetrazolium in combination with PMS was used to detect different catabolic activities of bacterial cells grown with different carbon sources. The effect of repression of metabolic pathways was demonstrated in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Results comparable to the production of [14C]CO2 from [14C]oleate by E. coli demonstrated the MTS assay is an alternative to the use of radiolabeled compounds. (2102)

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J. Cell Sci. 109(Pt. 8), 2013-2021. Role of laminin-1 and TGF-β3 in acinar differentiation of a human submandibular gland cell line (HSG). 1996

Hoffman, M.P., Kibbey, M.C., Letterio, J.J. and Kleinman, H.K.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to determine that acinar formation on laminin and Matrigel involved cell proliferation of the human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) at a similar rate to cells cultured on plastic. (2124)

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J. Cell Sci. 109 ( Pt 8), 2013-2021. Role of laminin-1 and TGF-beta 3 in acinar differentiation of a human submandibular gland cell line (HSG). 1996

Hoffman, M.P., Kibbey, M.C., Letterio, J.J., Kleinman, HK.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous System was used to determine that acinar formation on laminin and Matrigel involved cell proliferation of the human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) at a similar rate to cells cultured on plastic. (2912)

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J. Clin. Invest. 98, 443-450. Sequence-independent inhibition of in vitro vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and in vivo neointimal formation by phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides 1996

Wang, W., Chen, H.J., Schwartz, A., Cannon, P.J., Stein, C.A., Rabbani, L.E.

Notes: The effect of the phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide S-dC28 on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in the presence or absence of PDGF was assessed using the CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. Additionally, LDH release was monitored using the CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay to determine if S-dC28 was directly cytotoxic to vascular smooth muscle cells. (2549)

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Cytokine 8, 58-65. TGF-ß1, IL-10 and IL-4 differentially modulate the cytokine-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human endothelial cells. 1996

Chen, C.C. and Manning, A.M.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to measure the effects of TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-4 on proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). The authors were able to rule out the possibility that inhibitory effects of TGF-β on TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression was due to inhibition of cell proliferation. (1499)

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J. Clin. Invest. 97, 1173-1183. Thrombin receptor activation elicits rapid protein tyrosine phosphorylation and stimulation of the Raf-1/MAP kinase pathway preceding delayed mitogenesis in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. 1996

Molloy, C.J., Pawlowski, J.E., Taylor, D.S., Turner, C.E., Weber, H., Peluso, M., Seller, S.M.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to determine proliferation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells treated with thrombin or thrombin plus hirudin. (2550)

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Int. J. Pharm. 141, 217-225. TR146 cells as a model for human buccal epithelium: II. Optimisation and use of a cellular sensitivity MTS/PMS assay. 1996

Jacobsen, J., Pedersen, M. and Rassing, M.R.

Notes: CellTiter 96® AQueous MTS Powder and the CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay were used to optimize an assay to test the sensitivity of TR146 human buccal epithelial cells treated with a series of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Parameters optimized for their screening assay included: initial cell seeding density, PMS concentration, MTS concentration, and stability of the MTS-formazan. (2090)

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Growth Reg. 5(2), 69-84. A critical assessment of the use of microculture tetrazolium assays to measure cell growth and function. 1995

Marshall, N.J., Goodwin, C.J. and Holt, S.J.

Notes: A good general review of the use of tetrazolium compounds including MTS for microculture tetrazolium assays. (2071)

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Biotechniques 19(4), 640-649. Aqueous soluble tetrazolium/formazan MTS as an indicator of NADH- and NADPH-dependent dehydrogenase activity. 1995

Dunigan, D.D., Waters, S.B. and Owen, T.C.

Notes: This paper describes the use of MTS (CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay) as an indicator for measuring enzymatic activity of dehydrogenase enzymes. (2111)

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In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 31, 735-737. Cell culture contamination by Mycobacteria. 1995

Buehring, G.C., Pan, C.Y. and Valesco, M.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) was used to measure cell growth in a study to identify Mycobacterium avium contamination of cell cultures. In some cases (normal human fibroblasts), the M. avium contamination did not affect growth while in other cases (T47D) cell growth was slowed. (1497)

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J. Immunol. 154(9), 4741-4748. Chloromethyl ketones block induction of nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages by preventing activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. 1995

Kim, H., Lee, H.S., Chang, K.T., Ko, T.H., Baek, K.J., Kwon, NS.

Notes: CellTiter 96® AQueous (MTS) was used to determine viability of TPCK and TLCK treated murine macrophage. (2934)

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J. Immunol. 154(9), 4741-4748. Chloromethyl ketones block induction of nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages by preventing activation of nuclear factor-KappaB. 1995

Kim, H., Lee, H.S., Chang, K.T., Ko, T.H., Baek, K.J. and Kwon, S.K.

Notes: CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) was used to determine viability of TPCK and TLCK treated murine macrophages. (2099)

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J. Immunol. Methods 187(1), 85-93. Comparison of [3H]-thymidine incorporation with MTT- and MTS-based bioassays for human and murine IL-2 and IL-4 analysis. Tetrazolium assays provide markedly enhanced sensitivity. 1995

Gieni, R.S., Li, Y. and HayGlass, K.T.

Notes: The authors used MTS (CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay) from Promega and reasoned that low levels of cytokine insufficient to induce proliferation and DNA synthesis may be sufficient to maintain the viability of the bioassay cells in culture. They conclude that the tetrazolium assays are: 1) able to detect 2-16-fold lower cytokine levels than methods based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation; and, 2) achieve higher precision with standard deviations of 1-4% for tetrazolium assays vs. 5-15% for thymidine incorporation. (2116)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92(15), 7016-7020. De novo decorin gene expression suppresses the malignant phenotype in human colon cancer cells. 1995

Santra, M., Skorski, T., Calabretta, B., Lattime, E.C., and Lozzo, R.V.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to establish the differences in growth rates of various clones of human colon cancer cells expressing decorin. (1704)

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Cell Death Differ. 2, 201-210. DNA synthesis precedes gliotoxin-induced apoptosis. 1995

Waring, P. Mamchak, A. Khan, T., Sjaarda, A., and Sutton, P.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to examine the effects of gliotoxin treatment on P815 cells. (1720)

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J. Immunol. Methods 179(1), 95-103. Microculture tetrazolium assays: A comparison between two new tetrazolium salts, XTT and MTS. 1995

Goodwin, C.J., Holt, S.J., Downes, S. and Marshall, N.J.

Notes: These authors used Promega's CellTiter® 96 AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay in this study. (2119)

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Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 107, 17-25. Mitogenic effects and nuclear localisation of procorticotrophin-releasing hormone expressed with stably transfected fibroblast cells (CHO-K1). 1995

Castrol, M.G., Tomasee, P., Morrison, E., Murray, C.A., Hodge, P., Blanning, P., Linton, E., Lowry, P.J. and Lowensteein, P.R.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay (MTT) was used to measure the effects of proCRH on proliferation of CHO-K1 fibroblasts. (1498)

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Nature 378(6553), 189-191. NT-4-mediated rescue of lateral genticulate neurons from effects on monocular deprivation. 1995

Riddle, D.R., Lo, D.C., and Katz, L.C.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) was used to measure the survival of PC-12 cells transfected with the TrkB receptor. The effects of NT-4 and BDNF were compared in a serum-free assay system. The data are expressed as percent survival at 72hr relative to cultures treated with 50ng/ml NGF. (2084)

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J. Neurochem. 64, 2509-2517. Pigment epithelium-derived factor is a survival factor for cerebellar granule cells in culture. 1995

Taniwaki, T., Becerra, S.P., Chader, G.J. and Schwartz, J.P.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to measure the number of viable cerebellar granule cells in vitro. Direct counts of cell number were unchanged from day 1 to day 4 but the cells demonstrated an increased ability to reduce MTS reagent. The authors attribute the reduced day 1 metabolism to the effects of in vitro culturing. (1533)

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Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151, (4 Pt. 2). Stimulation of airway epithelial cell proliferation by infiltrating leukocytes after segmental allergen lung challenge 1995

Hastie, A.T., Everts, K.B., Shaver, J.R., Zangrilli, J., Cirelli, R., Pollice, M., Fish, J.E. and Peters, S.P.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to measure proliferation of airway epithelial cells cultured in air/medium interface stimulation of proliferation of airway epithelial cells obtained by cytology brush. After co-culture, the inserts with airway epithelial cells were transferred to fresh medium and the cell number determined using the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay system. (2122)

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J. Dermatol. Sci. 10(2), 130-138. The effects of cyclosporin A and FK506 on proliferation and IL-8 production of cultured human keratinocytes. 1995

Kaplan, A., Matsue, H., Shibaki, A., Kawashima, T., Kobayashi, H., Ohkawara, A.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay was used to measure proliferation of normal human neonatal forskin keratinocytes. The MTS assay was compared and shown to be equivalent to the 3H-thymidine uptake method. The absorbance with the MTS method was shown to correlate linearly with cell number up to 20,000/well. (2927)

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J. Dermatol. Sci. 10(2), 130-138. The effects of cyclosporin A and FK506 on proliferation and IL-8 production of cultured human keritinocytes. 1995

Kaplan, A., Matsue, H., Shibaki, A., Kawashima, T., Kobayashi, H. and Ohkawara, A

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to measure proliferation of normal human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes. The MTS assay was compared and shown to be equivalent to the 3H-thymidine uptake method. The absorbance with the MTS method was shown to correlate linearly with cell number up to 20,000/well. (2093)

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J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 42, 379-388. Use of a tetrazolium-based cell proliferation assay to measure effects of in vitro conditions on Perkinsus marinus (Apicomplexa) proliferation. 1995

Dungan, C.F. and Hamilton, R.M.

Notes: The CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) was used to measure the proliferation of the apocomplexan oyster pathogen (a protozoan). The authors used the assay to define selected artificial sea water (high salt) culture system parameters to maximize proliferation, assess selected chemosensitivities, and standardize an assay system for quantitation of cell densities and doubling times. (1503)

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